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THE 



OLD NINETEENTH 



TENNESSEE REGIMENT, 



C. S. A. 



June, 1861. * April, 1865. 



BY DR. W. J. WORSHAM, 

! J 

Knoxville, Terin. 



Supplementary Chapter by 

COL. C. W. HEISKELL, 

Memphis, Tenn. 



KNOXVILLE, TENN. 

PRESS OF PARAGON PRINTING COMPANY. 
19 02. 



THE FEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBUARY 

490309U 

ASW2, LEKOX A*D 
1BJ>LV rCONDAKOKS 

* 1949 L 



Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1902, 

Copyrighted by 

Dr. W. J. Worsham, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 







DEDICATION. 



^PO the survivors, and in memory of the dead of the Nineteenth Tennessee 
Regiment, C. S. A., who, through sunshine and storm, summer's heat 
and winter's blast — whose bed, often was the frozen ground, and whose cover 
was the beautiful white snow— the many hardships endured and the privations 
of army life suffered, all for loved ones at home and their loved Sunny South, 
is this book respectfully dedicated by 

THE AUTHOR. 

Knoxville, Tenn., January 10, 1902. ' 



PREFACE. 



This is not a history of the "late war," or of the Confederacy. The 
reader of this modest volume will need to keep in mind the fact the author 
proposes to confine himself, historically, to what one regiment of Tennes- 
seeans did in the civil war. He will find a simple and truthful statement of 
facts, without comment or criticism, without bitterness or exaggeration. Him- 
self an honest and faithful soldier, the author tells in a straightforward way, 
what he and his comrades of the Nineteenth Tennessee regiment did and suf- 
fered in that cruel war. There is no reference to the long line of social and 
political influences which led up to the painful necessity on the part of the 
Southern people, to either forfeit their own self-respect, and the respect of 
all brave men, or go to war. And this is well. Let the dead bury their dead. 
There is no "bloody-shirt 1 ' here. But this will not surprise the reader when 
he remembers that the author was himself a soldier. For it is a well known 
fact that it is not the brave and patriotic men in Blue and Gray, who stood on 
the firing-line in the day of battle that would keep the fires of fraternal strife 
still burning. But a different breed, whelps from another kennel, who cow- 
ardly came out after the killing was done, with the instincts of the hyena, to 
dig up dead and putrid things. Thank God the tribe is about extinct, died 
of pure air and sunshine. These East Tennesseeans surrendered as the brave 
surrender, meaning peace and conciliation. They returned to the union in 
good faith as equals, they remain in the union as its trustworthy friends. 
"With no humble apologies, no unmanly servility, cherishing no petty strife, 
and indulging no sullen treachery, they are frank, honest, patriotic citizens 
of the United States, accepting the present, trusting the future, and proud of 
the past." 

For myself, I want to thank the author for this book. It calls up and 
puts in permanent form, facts, long since familiar, which would otherwise 
soon be lost. Comrades of the old Nineteenth, remnant of the 1000 who went 
out with us, we owe more than a vote of thanks to the author, for his efforts 
to preserve the history of the patriotic courage and deeds of noble daring of 
these men, many of whom fell in battle, and many others since the war have 
"crossed over the river and rest under the shade of the trees." Our children 
will thank him for thus putting in simple narrative the incidents, in regular 
order, of our marches, our camp-life and our battles. But this will not help 
pay for the publication of the book. Remember it has a limited scope, and 
under the conditions can not have a very extensive circulation. Let us see 
that the good Doctor has readers enough to meet the cost of the work. 

And when the roll is called up yonder, may we all be there, is the earnest 

prayer of your long-time and loving chaplain. 

D. SULLINS. 
Cleveland, Tenn., January, 1902. 




DR. W. J. WORSHAM. 

Dr. W. J. Worsham was born on the Hiwassee, one mile above Calhoun, 
Tenn., January, 1840. Joined the Nineteenth Tennessee Confederate regi- 
ment m June, 1861. Was made Chief Musician of the regiment, which he 
failed to the close of the war. Called the men into line for their first roll-call; 
was with the regiment through the war and called the men into line for the last 
roll-call in May, 1865. 



THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE, C S. A. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE late "Rebellion" or the war between the North and 
the South will furnish themes for discussion, and battle 
scenes to be gone over again by all who were engaged in 
it, and after they have passed into the beyond, its history will 
go down the ages to be read by coming generations. The 
war cloud that spread over this country in 1861, grew from a 
dark spot not bigger than a man's hand, seen first in 1620, 
and out of which issued the edict calling forth the 19th Ten- 
nessee regiment, and enrolling her name upon the War God's 
historic scroll. When the "Mayflower" landed her cargo of 
Puritan Pilgrims on Plymouth Rock, they found negro slavery, 
evidently the germ of the late rebellion, planted in the soil of 
American civilization. There it germinated and matured, until 
in the spring of 1861 its agitation resulted in civil war. This 
negro question, not yet observed by the masses, was evidently 
the dark background of the coming struggle. Of all the storm 
clouds that have passed over this country, none ever blackened 
political firmanent as did this. The darkness was so black and 
ominous as to attract the anxious gaze of the civilized world, 
and nations looked on with profound interest. It is true this 
land has heard the roar of musketry and cannon through her 
hills and valleys in the long years gone by, but the fearful 
destructiveness of this coming storm, was all undreamed of by 
her people. Soon the nation's heartstrings would be torn 
asunder, and her life blood let out through thousands of pores, 
and the North and Sunny South would lament their fallen sons 
and ruined homes. 

The tocsin of war was now heard throughout the whole 
land, from the north to the south, from the east to the west. 
The line was drawn, and in the division the South was the 



O THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

smaller in territory and resources. Practically she had nothing, 
yet there was excitement and a gathering- of people. Compa- 
nies, regiments, and brigades were formed. Tennessee cast 
her lot with the South June 8, 1861. She had no ammunition 
and no guns save a few old flint-locks, the relics of the Mexi- 
can war; yet Generals Pillow and Pglk in Middle and West 
Tennessee, and General Zollicoffer in East Tennessee, were 
organizing. In East Tennesse companies from Bristol to Chat- 
tanooga were gathering at Knoxville. 

Col. J. C. Vaughn, having completed one regiment had gone 
on to Virginia. On June the 10th, 1861, the old 19th organ- 
ized with companies made up all along the line of East Ten- 
nessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad from Bristol to Chatta- 
nooga. We organized in the old fair ground, about one mile 
east of the city of Knoxville. 

OKGANIZATION. 

The camp was called Camp Cummings, in honor of Col. D. 
H. Cummings, the first colonel of the regiment. The following 
officers were elected to command the regiment and companies : 

David H. Cummings Colonel. 

Frank M. Walker Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Abe Fulkerson Major. 

V. Q. Johnson Adjutant. 

H. Mell Doak Sergeant-Major. 

Dr. Joe E. Dulany Surgeon. 

A. D. Taylor Quartermaster. 

Rev. D. Sullins Chaplain. 

BY APPOINTMENT. 

W. J. Worsham, ~) 

Rufus Lamb, > Regimental Musicians, 

James Tyner, ) 

COMPANIES. 

Co. A— John D. Powell Captain Hamilton Co. 

1st Lieutenant . . . 

" Daniel Kennedy 2d 

" Frank Foust 3d 

Co. B— Zeb T. Willett Captain Washington Co. 

" Joseph Conley 1st Lieutenant. . . 

4 ' Nathan Gregg 2d 

" James G. Deaderick.. 3d 



ORGANIZATION. 9 

Co. C— James K. Snapp Captain Sullivan Co. 

" Charles St. John 1st Lieutenant.. . 

" Geo. H.Hull 2d 

" John M.Jones 3d 

Co. D— Elmon E. Colvill Captain Rhea 

" Pete Miller 1st Lieutenant 

" James A. Wallace... '2d 
" S. J. A. Frazier 3d 

Co. E — John W. Paxton Captain Knoxville. 

John M. Miller 1st Lieutenant 

" J.K.Graham 2d 

" Wm. W. Lackey 3d 

Co. F— J. H. Hannah Captain Polk 

" P. C. Gaston, 1st Lieutenant 

" J. M. Sims 2d 

" J. C. Holms 3d 

Co. G — A. L. Gammon Captain Sullivan 

" Jas. A. Rhea 1st Lieutenant 

" Robt. L. Blair 2d 

" James Carlton 3d 

Co. H — Wm. H. Lowery Captain McMinn 

" U. S. York 1st Lieutenant. . 

" D. A. Wilds 2d 

" Thomas Maston 3d 

Co. I— T. H. Walker Captain Hamilton 

" B. F. Moore 1st Lieutenant 

" Warren Hooper 2d 

" John Lovejoy 3d 

Co. K-C. W. Heiskell Captain Hawkins 

" Robt. D. Powell 1st Lieutenant 

" Sam P. Powell 2d 

Sam Spears 3d 

Company A had 97 Company F had 93 

B " 100 " G " 110 

C " 101 " H " 94 

D " 103 " I " 110 

E " 106 " K " 100 

The number of men enrolled of rank and file was one thou- 
sand and twelve, and of commissioned officers forty-eight, mak- 
ing a total of one thousand and sixty (1,060.) 

Now we began camp life in earnest. Formed messes of four 
to six in each mess. Each mess had one tent, tin plates, cups 
and cooking utensils. Each man had one blanket, one can- 
teen, one napsack and one haversack. 



CHAPTER II. 



CAMP CUMMINGS. 



THIS was indeed a new life to us, and a more restless set of 
men could not be found than were we. Every hour of the 
long day from the dim, gray, misty light of dawn to the 
soft glow of shadowy evening was full of excitement and new 
delights to us. 

Although drill was the order of the day, yet when not drill- 
ing the men were on the move all the time, until taps put an 
end to the restlessness and quiet reigned. 

The different maneuvers in drill and in the manual of arms 
occupied our attention during the day. There were guards at 
regular intervals around the encampment. These were called 
sentinels and had so far to walk back and forth, called beats. 

During the hours of the night, when the dull tramp of the 
soldier was hushed in sleep, no sound was heard save that of 
the slow tread of the sentinel on his beat, and the calling of the 
post and hour by the sentinels. How lonely it did sound in 
the dead hours of the night as they called out, "Post number 
one, all is well." 

Col. Cummings had an old negro man named "Munger," 
old Munger was a fifer and could play only one tune, which he 
called "My wife is sick, my wife is sick." Poor Munger, I can 
hear him now. Munger stayed with the regiment till we reached 
Cumberland Ford, Ky. On one occasion in order to try the 
men, the enemy was announced advancing and we were ordered 
out, as we supposed, to fight. The test being made, the regi- 
ment returned to camp. Old Munger had a tent. In his fright 
he run and stuck his head into the tent, lying on his belly with 
his feet outside shaking as if he had a regular buck-ague. 
Munger was a Guinea negro and believed he was four hundred 
years old. 

June the 22nd, companies A and E were ordered to Cum- 
berland Gap under command of Capt. J. D. Powell. The field 
band, of which we had charge, was ordered with them. We 
boarded the cars at the depot and moved out for Morristown, 



CAMP CUMMINGS. 11 

Term., from which pla.ce we marched across the country to the 
Gap. We camped the first night at Bean Station, a fine water- 
ing place, at the foot of Clinch Mountain. There were black 
and white sulphur besides other waters. 

BARBECUE. 

As we entered the gorge in which the springs are situated 
the air was perceptibly loaded with sulphurated hydrogen, one 
of the boys cried out, "We are at the headquarters for rotten 
eggs." The next day, by pre-arrangement of the ladies, they 
gave us a "barbecue" at the Station. Men, women and chil- 
dren were there, from all around. Our two companies marched 
and countermarched, while our band did :its best, marching at 
the head of the column. 

We were the "elephant" that day. On the morning of the 
24th we moved on towards the Gap, encountering rough roads, 
and crossing Clinch and Powell rivers. We pitched our tents 
within two miles of the Gap, where we remained two or three 
days. While here Sergeant David Kuhn accidentally shot him- 
self with a pistol through the hand, and was registered upon the 
surgeon's book as the first casualty of the regiment. 

June the 27th we moved up in the Gap and pitched our tents 
on the mountain top, 

"Up in the region of the clouds 
Where the cold winds blow 
Our tents of fancy stuck." 

Our encampment here was on high, steep and rough ground 
—so steep the boys declared they had to tie themselves in the 
bed at night to keep from rolling out. Lieut. Col. F. W. 
Walker came on to the Gap in a few days after our arrival. 
When Companies A and E left Knoxville, Companies F and H, 
under command of Maj. Fulkerson, went to Jamestown, about 
seventy-five miles from the Gap, on the Cumberland range. 

Soon after these, Col. Cummings left with four companies, 
B, D, G and I, and moved out by way of Clinton and camped 
for a while near his old home. From this place he proceeded 
to Big Creek Gap in the Cumberland Mountains, where he 
remained until the 4th of July. Companies C and K were sent 
to Loudon, Tenn., to guard the railroad bridge at that place. 
We had not been long in the Gap, when one of Company A was 
taken sick and died, and was buried with military honors. His 



12 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

death was the first recorded in the regiment. Men, women and 
children came into the camp daily, bringing butter, chickens, 
eggs, etc., to sell. Soon we had the Confederate flag floating 
in the breeze from- the "Pinnacle," one of the highest points of 
the mountains. Up in Virginia, some ten miles, were a few 
cavalrymen, who did picket duty along this part of the moun- 
tain. One day in July these cavalrymen brought into camp 
some twenty men as prisoners, whom they had captured, who 
were making their way across the mountain into Kentucky. 
Among them was Thos. A. R. Nelson, of Jonesboro, Tenn. 
Col. Walker sent them onto Knoxville. Frequently men would 
come into camp and remain until late at night and go home. 
Here we had sentinels all around our encampment, as the ground 
was so rough. One post was within ten steps of my tent, 
which was twenty feet above the road leading up the mountain. 
The sentinel was posted in the road. One evening a Virgin- 
ian came into camp riding a fine horse, hitched him and entered, 
remaining late. The night was dark and the overhanging trees 
where the sentinel stood rendered the darkness more intense. 
About nine o'clock the sentry heard steps approaching in the 
road on the inside of the camp, as if some one was trying to 
slip by him, or upon him. Whatever it was, it would make 
one or two steps cautiously and halt, then two or three more, 
then halt again. Being so dark the sentry could not see any- 
thing. Close and closer came the steps, when we heard the 
sentinel challenge the approaching footsteps : "Halt, halt ! Who 
comes there?" But no response. A step or two more, and "halt," 
cried the sentinel, yet the steps came closer. Click, click, we 
heard the sentinel's gun, as he made ready to fire. "Halt," 
once more he cried, and bang went his gun. A horse wheeled 
and ran back some twenty steps and fell dead. It was the fine 
horse the Virginian rode in the evening before. It had gotten 
loose and was trying to get by the sentinel. Col. Walker was 
carelessly handling or shaking a box of caps in his hand when 
they exploded, blowing open the box, and pieces of the caps cut 
his hand in several places. 

July the 4th Col. Cummings came up to the Gap with the 
four companies he had with him, and the third day after Maj. 
Fulkerson came up with the two he had. All the regiment was 
here now, and drill was the order of the day. We had to go 
down into the valley on the Tennessee side to find ground on 



FOG. I!! 

which to drill. We fortified the Gap by throwing' up works 
across the Gap. Building the breastworks and drill gave us 
something to do. 

The Rev. David Sullins was our Chaplain with whom we all 
were in love. He preached for as regularly every Sunday 
morning, and in the evening we had Sunday-school — our chap- 
lain, our superintendent. Now and then false-alarms would be 
given, and such a hustling of the men on the mountain side to 
get into line. 

When the alarm would be given at night, the men in their 
hurry to form line, would fall down and sometimes roll down 
the mountain side several feet before getting a foothold. 

In the Gap our camps were up in the clouds. And fre- 
quently we would be in the center of a storm cloud and the 
lightning would seem to leap out of the clouds and fall in 
round balls to the ground. 

A DENSE FOG. 

One clear, bright morning about nine o'clock, the sun 
seemed to shine with unusual brightness. A dense fog came 
drifting down the mountain hunting a place to cross. It was so 
heavy it could not rise above the mountain top and sought an 
opening in the Gap. 

On reaching the Gap it began pouring itself through, and 
so dense was it, for an hour the sun could not be seen, and 
part of the time we could not see an object ten feet ahead of us. 

Our short stay in the Gap will long be remembered. About 
the last of August Col. Branners' battalion of cavalry came up 
to the Gap, and they were closely followed by the Fifteenth Mis- 
sissippi, (Col. W. S. Statham),the Eleventh Tennessee, (Rains), 
Seventeenth Tennessee, (Col. Newman), Twentieth Tennessee, 
(Col. Battle), Twenty-ninth Tennessee, (Col. Powell), and Capt. 
Rutledge's Artillery. 

The next day Brig. General F. K. ZollicofTer with his staff 
came and took command of the entire force at the Gap. On the 
fourth of September General Zollicoffer moved the command out 
to Cumberland Ford on the Cumberlaind river and established 

CAMP ZOLLICOFFEE. 

Here the cavalry were kept at the front all the time on picket 
duty. While here our regiment received ten instruments for 
the brass band and music complete. We formed a band and 



14 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

after a little practice began playing on duty. We Jiked our 
young band but its life, like that of the "May-Fly," was short 
in duration. Our encampment looked quite military. We had 
about six thousand two hundred men. September twelfth 
General Zollicoffer sent out a detachment under Col. Battle, 
composed of two companies from each regiment and one battal- 
ion of cavalry to Barboursville, Kentucky where it was reported 
a force of the enemy was encamped. Companies B and K 
were detailed from the Nineteenth Tennessee regiment. Early 
in the morning of the thirteenth they ran upon the enemy in a 
corn field just this side of the town. Company K, of the Nine- 
teenth Tennessee was thrown out as a skirmish line, and it ad- 
vanced on the enemy and began firing. While it was but a 
small skirmish line, and this being their first under fire, it 
seemed like fighting and sounded of battle. In this little battle 
Lieutenant Robert Powell, of Co. K was killed, and a few oth- 
ers were wounded . This made the Nineteenth Tennessee lose the 
first man killed outside of Virginia. The detachment returned 
next day, and Lieut. Powell's remains were sent home for burial. 
General Zollicoffer sent our regiment accompanied by Colonel 
Carter's regiment of cavalry on an expedition to 

GOOSE CREEK SALT WORKS, 

about forty miles north in the Kentucky mountains. It had been 
raining for several days, and the morning of September 25th, 
we started out in one of the hardest rains that had fallen for some 
time. We encountered rough mountainous roads and swollen 
streams. Some places on our journey we could not see a hun- 
dred yards except by looking up. We passed but few habita- 
tions and they were up on the side of the mountain. The rain 
continued pouring in torrents all the day, rendering our pro- 
gress difficult, yet on we went. The morning of the third day 
we arrived at Goose Creek about two miles above the salt works 
the objective point of our journey. We found the creek much 
swollen from the recent rains. The road and the creek ran 
down between the ridges together. They took it time about in 
crossing each other, and always went through each other. In 
the two miles we had to go down this creek, we had to wade it 
seventeen times. At each crossing we lost some mud we gath- 
ered on our way. We loaded our wagons with two hundred 
bushels of salt. There was plenty of honey here, and the boys 
filled themselves with honey until it became too sweet to be 




REV. DAVID SULLINS. 

Brother Sullins was born in McMinn County, Tenn., near Athens, in 
1827. He joined the Nineteenth Tennessee Confederate regiment in June, 
1861, and was made Chaplain of the regiment, which place he filled until the 
re-organization of the army in 1862. At that time was made division Chaplain 
and division Quarter-Master of Gen. Breckenridge 's division, where he remained 
for two years or longer. 



GOOSE CREEK SALT WORKS. 15 

good. So sick were many of the boys that they cared for 
neither honey nor salt. For some time after, just to speak of 
honey the boys would gag. 

We returned to camp, after being gone five days, tired and 
almost fagged out ; having fulfilled our mission for which 
we were sent, we sat down in camp and rested. Mr. White who 
had charge of the salt works, had a fine lot of ducks and geese. 
The boys had killed several of them, and Mr. White was com 
plaining to John Webster, of Company K, about it. Webster 
told him it was a shame and he would see that the men were 
punished, and that no more would be killed. Just then a duck 
he had concealed under his coat began to quack and he at once 
had business with the regiment, and the old man returned to 
the house none the less pacified. 



CHAPTER III. 

ROCK CASTLE. 

WE had now been out nearly four months playing the roll of 
soldier. The exhilarating- life in the beginning had now 
somewhat worn away, and camp life had become a mo- 
notonous routine of military duties. We had done but little as 
yet, but from indications we would soon enter the arena of war 
in truth. After the wire edge of our martial chivalry shall have 
been worn away, we may and will be more able to stand the 
storm of battle. While we lay idle in Camp Zollicoffer, the 
Federals concentrated a considerable force under Gen. Schoeff 
at Rock Castle, or Wild Cat, in Kentucky. The Federal Col. 
Garrard had three regiments there, and on the fifteenth of Octo- 
ber had been reinforced by Gen. Schoeff with three more, and 
one battery of artillery and one battalion of cavalry. The morn- 
ing of the sixteenth of October Gen. Zollicoffer with his entire 
force moved out to attack this force at Wild Cat. The route 
through the mountains was rough and heavily timbered, the 
greater part of the way was between precipitous ridges which 
rendered our march hazardous. To retard our advance the en- 
emy had fallen trees across the road and in other ways had ob- 
structed our way. We did not reach the enemy until early in 
the morning of the twentieth, and having marched and worked 
all the night before, did not feel like attacking the enemy in his 
den that morning. Gov. A. S. Marks, who was with us and who 
commanded a company in the Seventeenth Tennessee regiment 
says, "The hill on which the enemy had fortified was at the head 
of a gorge about a quarter of a mile wide. This fortified hill 
commanded the road over Rock Castle hills. The day before 
the enemy was reached, we found the road approaching the hills i 
and miles away from it, obstructed by fallen trees. Men were 
put to work to clear away the obstruction. We were not allowed 
to eat or sleep until the enemy was reached next morning. We 
moved a hundred yards at a time as the fallen trees were gotten 



ROCK CASTLE. 17 

out of the way. When the hill was reached the road was found 
impassable from the fallen trees. The advance was through the 
woods. We found the face of the hill a precipitous bluff, with 
but a small place accessible. My company only could find 
ground to ascend which we did, and found the entrenchments 
of the enemy but sixty yards from the crest, with abatis in 
front. We opened fire, which was briskly returned. My com- 
pany filled all the available space, so we could not be reinforced 
and we were recalled. I lost in my company six killed, and 
twenty wounded. Some were killed and wounded in the other 
companies. No other attempt was made to assault anywhere 
else." 

Col. Newman's regiment was the only one engaged, and his 
loss in all was eleven killed, and tweuty-seven wounded. The 
loss of the enemy was but five killed and eleven wounded. Zol- 
licoffer returned to camp at Cumberland Ford, and after a few 
days' rest he began an evacuation of this part of Kentucky. 
October the thirtieth we bid adieu to Camp Zollicoffer. Mov- 
ing out early in the morning we headed for the Gap, through 
which we passed and tnrned down the mountain toward Jacks- 
boro, Tennessee. Two regiments, Col. Rains' (Eleventh Ten- 
nessee), and Col. Newman's (Seventeenth Tennessee), were 
left at the Gap to hold it against occupation by the enemy. 

We reached Jacksboro November the fourth where we re- 
mained a few days blockading the passes along the mountain. 
At this place unfavorable indications began to show regarding 
the future usefulness of our young brass band. Col. Cummings 
ordered all the men belonging to the band, (except the old field 
band), to carry their guns; this, the men did not feel like doing, 
carry their guns and horns. 

So, on the morning of our leaving Jacksboro, we stacked 
our horns and left them. This was the demise of our brass 
band. The regiment fell back on the old field band, which she 
never abandoned, nor did the little faithful band ever prove 
truant to its trust, and on the morning of the regiment's last 
roll-call, this same faithful field band called them into line. 

Leaving Jacksboro we passed through Wartburg and Mont- 
gomery, and crossing Little Emory river, we ascended the Cum- 
berland Mountains again, on whose top we traveled for thirty 
miles, through as lonely and desolate a country as could be 
found. We passed a residence about every six miles, till we 



18 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

reached Jamestown, the county site of Fentress County, a small 
cluster of houses in a rocky, barren country, almost destitute 
of any sign of life, where the winds' only song is a sad requium 
of starvation. Leaving the mountain just beyond Jamestown 
we turned our course northward, and the second day we entered 
the valley of Monticello, Kentucky, beautiful and fertile. We 
passed through the town of Monticello, December the 2nd, with 
colors flying and jubilant in spirits, moving on for Mill Springs 
on the Cumberland, where we pitched our tents the evening of 
the second day. 

After reaching Mill Springs, Gen. Zollicoffer wrote to Gen. 
A. S. Johnson of his intention to cross the river and fortify on 
the opposite side. To accomplish this he built two flat boats 
and with these he crossed the Cumberland with five regiments 
of infantry, seven companies of cavalry and four pieces of 
artillery. 

Moving out from the river about one mile on an elevation, 
he fortified his position, pitching our tent in a beautiful beech 
grove. After Zollicoffer had settled down in his uew quarters 
he received two dispatches from Gen. A. S. Johnson, and in 
one of them he says, "Mills Springs would seem to answer best 
all the demands of the service, and from this point you may be 
able to observe the river without crossing." But before these 
reached Gen. Zollicoffer, he had crossed the river, and to these 
dispatches he replied as follows : 

Camp Beech Grove, Ky., December 10th, 1861. 
Gen. Johnson — Your two dispatches reached me late last 
night. I infer from yours that I should not have crossed the 
river. But it is now too late. My means of recrossing the 
river are so limited I could hardly accomplish it in the face of 
the enemy, besides winter is now on us. 

Yours, 

F. K. Zollicoffer, Brig. Gen. 

It was said, Gen. Crittenden sent word to Gen. Zollicoffer 
to speedily recross the river; but be that as it may, when Gen. 
Crittenden came he found Gen. Zollicoffer still on the north 
side of the river, behind breast works and comfortably fixed in 
log cabins for the winter, which now had set in, in earnest. 

Our regiment occupied a position on the line of works on 
the extreme right, on a high bluff overlooking the river above. 
We were in a bend of the river, and our line of work extended 



ROCK CASTLE. 19 

from the river above nearly to the river below. We had not 
had any kind of drill since we left Cumberland Gap, and as for 
brigade drill, such a thing had not been done. Here we were 
too busy building breastworks and quarters to think of drilling. 

Just now a peep into our inner life as soldiers, shows that 
in our short outing as such, the morals of the men had degen- 
erated. Strange, how quickly men from under the influence of 
home and mother, loose sight of the good and with what tenac- 
ity they take hold of the bad, and, too, right in the face of dan- 
ger. Our army tactics, like that of the mariner's when off 
sounding, knew no Sunday, only as a day of extra duty. Since 
our crossing the Cumberland river, the Federals had concen- 
trated under Gen. Sckoeff* at Summerset several regiments of 
infantry, some cavalry and artillery. And under Gen. Thomas 
at Lebanon sixteen regiments of infantry, cavalry and artillery. 
Our cavalry were now at the front all the time, and every now 
and then would have a spat with the enemy. On the eighth of 
January our cavalry brought into camp fifteen or sixteen priso- 
ners, among whom were Maj. Helveti, and Capt. Prime, both 
of the engineering corps. It was reported that a regiment of 
infantry was encamped on the creek not far from the river, nor 
very far from our encampment. So, the morning of the tenth 
the Nineteenth Tennessee was sent out to see after them. We 
left camp about three o'clock in the morning. It was very 
dark, and a cold, drizzling rain falling and very muddy. As 
we drew near the supposed camp of the enemy our movements 
were at a snail's gait, so slow we could not keep up sufficient 
circulation to keep warm, and freeze we thought we would. 
We moved on so cautiously, we were not allowed to step so as 
to make a noise. Our feet were so numbed with cold we could 
not stand on one foot, and to move was painful. They felt as 
if a thousand needles were sticking them. At daylight we 
reached the creek, but found no trace of the enemy. We 
must cross the creek and the only way was to wade. How 
could we, this bitter cold morning and almost frozen, but there 
was no alternative. So, after disrobing partly, in we went and 
the cold water, as it crept up our legs, seemed full of needles 
pricking them. This cold wade proved to be the very thing for 
us, after getting out, reaction set in and soon we were warm 
and comfortable. W T e returned to camp with only a fisherman's 
luck. 



20 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

January the fifteenth Maj. Gen. Geo. B. Crittenden with 
Brig. Gen. Carroll's brigade composed of the following regi- 
ments, viz: Col. Newman's 17th Tennessee, Col. Stanton's 25th 
Tennessee, Col. Murray's 28th Tennessee, Col. Powell's 29th 
Tennessee, Col. White's 27th Tennessee, Col. Wood's 16th Ala- 
bama, McClung's battery of two guns, and Col. Branner's and 
Col. McClelland's battalions of cavalry arrived. Col. Mose 
White with his regiment remained at Mill Springs and did not 
cross the river. Gen. Thomas at this time had joined Gen. 
Schoeff at Somerset, with his eight thousand infantry, cavalry 
and artillery. The combined force of the enemy now was twelve 
regiments of infantry, two regiments of cavalry and four bat- 
teries. He began an advanced movement on our forces on the 
17th of January. For several days previous the rains had 
been heavy [and incessant and the streams were all swollen. 
Such was the condition of Fishing Creek when Thomas reached 
it, compelling him to remain on his side of the creek until the 
evening of the 18th when he crossed a part of his men. Fri- 
day night of the 17th Gen. Crittenden called a council of war, 
composed of the brigades and regimental commanders and cap- 
tains of batteries, to consider the best thing to do; whether to 
attack Thomas before he could cross all his forces over the now 
swollen creek, or wait for him to attack us in our entrench- 
ments. The result of the council was to move on the enemy 
at the earliest moment possible. 

It was said in camp, the next morning, Gen. Zollicoffer and 
Col. Cummings opposed the advance and the attack. All day 
Saturday the men were busy inspecting their arms and getting 
everything ready for the attack. Fishing Creek runs nearly 
south and empties into the Cumberland river about six miles 
above Mill Springs. The crossing was on the road leading from 
Somerset to Mill Springs, and about ten miles from our encamp- 
ment. On our side of the creek is a low bottom land for some 
distance. For two or three hundred yards out from the creek 
was heavily timbered, and from this to the top of the ridge was 
cleared and under cultivation, and was about three hundred 
yards wide, the public road dividing it into two large fields. 

On the west side and near the foot of the ridge stood a log- 
cabin which was used as a field hospital. Saturday at mid- 
night the army was put in motion. The night was dark and cold, 
and the bitter winds drove the sleet and rain in our faces, yet 



ROCK CASTLE. 2] 

on we went, plodding in the gloom and mud to the front and to 
battle. The order of the march was as follows: 

FIRST BRIGADE — BRIG. GEN. ZOLLICOFFER. 

Fifteenth Mississippi, Colonel W. S. Statham. 
Nineteenth Tennesse, Colonel Cummings. 
Twentieth Tennessee, Colonel Battle. 
Twenty-fifth Tennessee, Colonel Stanton. 
Rutledge's Artillery. 

SECOND BRIGADE — BRIG. GEN. CARROLL. 

Seventeenth Tennessee, Colonel Newman. 

Twenty-eighth Tennessee, Colonel Murray. 

Twenty-ninth Tennessee, Colonel Powell. 

Sixteenth Alabama, Colonel Wood. 

McClung's Battery. 
Of cavalry there were Bledsaw's, Sander's, Branner's and 
McClelland's. Bledsaw's and Sander's battalions were in front 
of Zollicoft'er, the other two battalions were behind Carroll's 
brigade. 

Sunday morning at daylight the cavalry ran upon the ene- 
my's pickets one and a half miles out in their front. A few 
shots were exchanged and the enemy slowly fell back to his 
mainline. Our cavalry did not push them. The 15th Missis- 
sippi took the front, closely followed by the 19th Tennessee. 
Soon we encountered their main picket line at the foot of the 
ridge, which as we approached fell back to the top of the hill. 
We formed line of battle at the foot of the ridge. The balls 
began passing over our heads pretty fast with a zip, zip, but 
they did not seem to be doing any harm for they were two hun- 
dred yards away on the hill above us. The 15th Mississippi 
formed on the right of the road, with the 20th Tennessee, Col. 
Battle joining them also on the right. These two regiments 
formed the right wing of our line of battle. 

The 19th Tennessee fell into line facing the front just on 
the left and touching the road, while the 25th Tennessee formed 
to our left and just a little in our rear. Gen. Carroll had not 
yet come up and had not formed line of battle. For our regi- 
ment to get into position we had to file through an old persim- 
mon thicket, and as we entered it Col. Cummings said to me, 
"We will hang our overcoat, blanket and haversacks on this 
bush" (a large persimmon we were just passing,) "and we will 



22 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

get them on our return." We did so, but neither of us ever 
saw them again. Getting into line we moved up the hill to the 
left of the road, and firing on the enemy who retired over and 
beyond the top of the ridge. By the time we reached the sum- 
mit, the firing was getting pretty brisk. 

The 15th Mississippi first opened the battle, engaging the 
12th Kentucky, then Battle opened on the enemy. The 19th 
Tennessee encountered first the 10th Indiana, about half way 
between the top of the ridge and the woods and the bottom. 
We charged at a double quick, closely followed by the 25th Ten- 
nessee, and drove the enemy under shelter of the woods. The 
15th Mississippi and the 20th Tennessee by this time had also 
driven the enemy from the top of the ridge into the woods 
below, thus forcing the whole Federal line from the clearing 
into the woods on the creek. The rain continued falling, some- 
times in heavy showers. 

Many of the men had the old flintlock guns which were, in 
this rain, utterly useless. The writer saw two or three of the 
boys break their guns over the fence, after several attempts to 
fire them. 

Rutledge's battery was planted on the hill just to the right 
of the road, and opened with two or three shots only. Our own 
men being in danger of his shots he fired no more. While in 
this position Capt. Rutledge had his horse killed under him by 
a cannon shot from the enemy's gun. Gen. Carroll formed his 
brigade just under cover of the ridge and awaited orders. The 
morning was dark, the smoke from the guns was beaten back 
by the rain, and settling on the ground increased the gloom. 
By this time time the 19th Tennessee was in the edge of the 
woods to which point we had driven the 10th Indiana. The 4th 
Kentucky regiment commanded by Col. Fry, came to the assist- 
ance of the 10th Indiana and was not more than thirty or forty 
yards in our front. Unfortunately, Gen. Zollicoffer, owing to 
the darkness of the morning, mistook the 4th Kentucky regi- 
ment for one of his own, and passing through our regiment he 
rode up to that of the enemy and said to Col. Fry, "We must 
not fire on our friends," to which Col. Fry replied, "I will not 
if I know it." Just then Maj. Fogg, of Gen. Zollicoffer' s staff, 
discovered they were Federals and fired at Col. Fry hitting his 
horse. Immediately a shot from the head of Fry's regiment 
hit Gen. Zollicoffer in the chest killing him instantly. 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL F. K. ZOLLICOFFER. 

General Zollieoffer was born in Columbia, Tenn., May 19th, 1812. At the 
beginning of the war between the States, F. K. ZollieofEer was made a Briga- 
dier-General and assigned to duty in East Tennessee in May, 1861. General 
Zollieoffer was killed in the battle of Fishing Creek, January 19th, 18G2. He 
was a brave soldier, generous and kind, and loved by all his command. 



ROCK CASTLE. 23 

Col. Cummings had been ordered by Gren. Zollicoffer as he 
passed by our regiment to cease firing, which they did, and all 
this time our regiment was receiving a galling fire from the 4th 
Kentucky regiment without returning it, and in this confusion 
the regiment fell back a short distance in some disorder. The 
enemy pressed forward, capturing the body of Gen. Zollicoffer 
and also that of Lieut. Baily Peyton, who was killed at the 
same time. 

Lieut. Peyton was one of Zollicoffer' s staff. The 25th Ten- 
nessee eame to our relief and we checked for the time any fur- 
ther advance of the enemy. Here Col. Cummings took charge 
of the brigade and Lieut. Col. Walker took command of the 
regiment. The 9th Ohio reinforced the 10th Indiana and the 
4th Kentucky and drove our two regiments out of the woods, 
back some distance, where Col. Stanton, of the 25th Tennessee, 
fell severely wounded. The 28th Tennessee, came to our help, 
and we charged the enemy driving them back but a short dis- 
tance, where we took shelter behind an old fence and kept up a 
heavy fire for some time. The roar of musketry and cannon 
seemed to us a considerable battle. The enemy again rein- 
forced their right and began a flank movement, and forced our 
entire left wing to the top of the ridge. Wood's 16th Alabama 
and Powell's 29th Tennessee coining in were unable to check 
the now advancing foe. The whole line now gave way and left 
the field in wild confusion and disorder. As we went into the 
battle, and after having -driven the Federals from the open field 
the writer picked up a Yankee overcoat and put it on for the 
rain was cold and falling fast. When nearly to the woods, we 
came upon one of our boys so badly wounded, who even with 
our help, could go no farther, we spread our Yankee overcoat 
on the wet ground and our wounded comrade lay down upon it 
to die. The wounded were taken from the field as fast as could 
be done, some left at the field hospital, others were taken on to 
camp and from there to Monticello. The last one we helped 
on this sad morning was Charlie Clemenson, of Company E, 
19th Tennessee, who fell mortally wounded about half way up 
the ridge after we had been driven from the woods. Pink Hen- 
derson, Clabe Perry and the writer carried Charlie from the 
field on a blanket. We had just reached the yard of the log 
cabin on the hill side where our hospital was located. Our men 
were now hurrying by as rapidly as they could, the road and 



24 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

woods were full, all in hot haste to be gone. Wood's Alabama 
regiment was trying to make some show of resistance but was 
as powerless as straw in the wind. As the Federals began 
descending the hill, and before reaching the field hospital, we 
having done all we could, retired in as good order and as quickly 
as we could. 

Poor Charley was dying when we laid him down. We can 
never forget the sad anxious expression of his face, as we left 
him in the last sad trial of the battle of life, dying alone, 
deserted by all, whom he thought were friends, left on the 
cold ground with naught but the cold rain to wash the sweat of 
death from his brow. Charley, we hope 

"The blood that flowed from your noble heart 
( )n the spot where you nobly perished, 
Was drank by the earth as a sacrament 
In the holy cause you cherished. 11 

The battle fought and lost, we made our way to camp in 
the bend of the river closely pursued by the enemy, and by 3 
p. m. they began shelling our encampment. They planted a 
battery just above us, on a hill in full command of the river and 
of our works. Our guns replied from one or two batteries and 
at short intervals the two armies kept shelling during the 
entire evening. 

We are sorry we cannot give the names of all who were 
wounded in our regiment. We give the names of all who were 
killed, but cannot of the wounded and missing. John L. Rhea, 
had two or three balls pass through his clothing, I art escaped 
unhurt. 

KILLED. 

William Dunlap, Co. A. Sergt. Middleton, Co. H. 

Lieut. J. Conley, " B. Isaac Carmack, " I. 

Jos. Smith, " D. Leander Welch, " " 

Charlie Clemenson " E. Josiah Woodall, 

Lieut, J. Carleton, " G. Carroll Carmack, K. 

WOUNDED. 

James Powers, Company A; Abner Vernon, Martin Harr, 
James Webb, Lafayette Baker, of Company C; James Camp 
bell, R. P. Sharp, David Roller, of Company L); Billie Vestal, 
Company E; Bam Cox, Company G; 8. G. Edgeman, Com- 
pany H; Andrew G. Johnson, - - Money ham, Marshall, 

of Company K. 



26 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

CAPTURED. 

Lafayette Baker, John Baker, Abner Vernon, of Company 
C; John White, R. G. Crozier, of Company E. 

DIED. 

Lieut. G. W. Hull, John Jordan, W. H. Barger, George 
Graham, Martin Harr, James Webb, of Company C, and David 
Roller, of Company D. 

Dr. J. E. Delaney, our surgeon, remained with our wounded 
on the field and was captured. Our loss in the aggregate in the 
engagement was : 



KEGIMENT. 


KILLED. 


WOUNDED. 


CAPTURED 


15th Mississippi, 


44 


153 


29 


16th Alabama, 


9 


5 


12 


17th Tennessee, 


11 


25 


2 


19th 


11 


22 


3 


20th 


33 


59 


18 


25th 


10 


28 


17 


28th 


3 


4 


5 


29th 


5 


12 


10 



Total, 126 308 96 

Martin Harr, Lafayette Baker and James Webb died in the 
hospital at Montic'ello from wounds received in 1 tattle. Lieut. 
G. W. Hull, John Jordan and W. H. Barger died in camp before 
the battle came off. This was our first engagement with the 
enemy that amounted to anything, while they were no better off 
in point of experience than we, they were decidedly so, as to 
arms and numbers. They were no doubt better drilled than we 
were. 

Our brigade was never drilled or put in line of battle by 
any one until the morning of the memorable battle of Fishing 
Creek. To these causes partly may be attributed our defeat. 
For we know that no more patriotic and courageous blood ever 
coursed through the veins of any men than flowed through 
those of Zollicoffer's brigade. They were willing and ready, 
but not prepared to meet more than their equal. 

General Zollicoffer was loved by his entire command, offi- 
cers and men. Generous and kind, was always looking to the 
welfare and interest of his men. Military in appearance, he 
commanded attention and respect wherever he went. Prior to 



ROCK CASTLE. 27 

the war, his life and work, trend of thought were opposed to 
that of war, while peace and quiet were a more genial atmos- 
phere for his heart and soul. 

But a few days before the battle of Fishing- Creek, the 
steamer, "Noble Ellis," came up from Nashville with provis- 
ions and clothing for the men, and had not yet returned. Her 
presence was our salvation. During the evening all the men 
were in the ditches, and remained until dark, when a detail was 
left to be on the lookout and the rest of the men returned to 
their cabins to prepare meals, for we had not eaten anything 
since the evening before; we had plenty to cook. My mess had 
supper ready, hot coffee, hot biscuit, meat, &c, all spread upon 
a rudely constructed table, in our comfortable quarters. 

We were hungry, and were just preparing to satisfy our 
appetites, when orders came ringing down the line of cabins, 
"Fall in line quickly and quietly as possible, leave everything 
but guns and accoutrements, clothing, knapsacks, haversacks, 
canteens, blankets, leave all in camps." We came pouring out 
of our huts, those who had eaten feeling well, but many had 
not, of which number was our mess. 

How we did hate to leave that hot steaming coffee and bis- 
cuit. We could not refrain from casting one long begrudging 
look at the table as we filed out into the dark to go whither we 
knew not. After we had left camp and had gotten to the river, 
the realization of our misfortune came crashing upon the heart 
like an avalanche. We were retreating. While on the river 
bank, waiting in the cold and dark, we could but think of our 
straw beds in the cabin, and the warm fire we left burning. 

We are on the river bank in one compact mass of excited 
and confused humanity. Thousands were crowded there wait- 
ing, each his turn to get on the Noble Ellis as she crossed and 
recrossed the river. The enemy just a little over a mile behind, 
who, from their battery above us on the hill, kept constantly 
shelling the boat as she crossed back and forth with her excited 
fugitive loads. The cavalrymen were whooping and hallowing 
to drive their horses into the river to swim them over. But 
very few of the horses ever crossed, many of them, perhaps, 
were drowned, but the greater part of them remained and were 
captured. Here were artillerymen without artillery, teamsters 
without their teams and cavalrymen afoot. What a racket and 
confusion reigned here, and right in the face of the enemy. A 



28 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

hundred men could have captured General Crittenden's whole 
army. If one gun had been fired just behind us hundreds doubt- 
less would have been pushed into the river. At last we were all 
over, landing the last load at daybreak. From the Mill Spring side 
of the river we could see our encampment plainly. And not 
before sun up did the enemy begin an approach to our works, 
nor until after they saw the smoke and flame rising from the 
burning boat. As the Noble Ellis went up in the smoke we 
could but feel sad, for she had remained and rescued us but lost 
her own existence. (Gen. Thomas became a deservedly distin- 
guished Federal general in the after days of the war, but he 
certainly showed little generalship on this occasion. He could 
and- ought to have captured the whole Confederate force. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THROUGH THE WILDERNESS. 



JANUARY 20th we took our last farewell look of Beech Grove 
and Mill Springs. We turned our faces sadly and sorrow- 
fully southward, and beheld in the distance a long jour- 
ney, hitherto unparalleled, through a rough barren and un- 
friendly country. We needed sympathy but received none, 
save that from the heavens, which looking down upon our for- 
lorn condition poured out upon us in heavy showers her sympa- 
thetic tears, but they did not make us feel any the more com- 
fortable. Through all the day long the rain continued to fall, 
when late in the evening we passed through Monticello wet, 
muddy and tired, not only in body but in mind. We presented 
an appearance to excite pity rather than applause. One mile 
beyond the town we sat down to rest for the night. We did not 
pitch our tent for we had none, neither had we blankets to 
spread upon the cold, wet ground upon which to lie, and with 
naught but the leaky clouds for a covering. Having had noth- 
ing to eat all day long, we lay down with empty stomachs to 
dream of the plenty we had left in camp. The next morning 
we had issued to us an ear of corn to each man (as if we were 
horses) to parch for breakfast. After building our fires, which 
were very poor for want of wood, and what we had was wet and 
sobby, we parched our corn in the ashes and ate it, then started 
on our march. The long gloomy road this morning stretched 
itself out to nearly one hundred miles, before we could see any 
visible signs of provisions or comforts of camp life. So all 
day Tuesday we plodded our weary way, and passed every now 
and then, country homes where there seemed to be plenty, but 
we were none the better oft'. Night came again to rest our 
weary limbs and sore feet, but nothing came to satisfy our now 
keen appetites, except a small piece of beef yet warm from the 
slaughter, no salt, nothing else. As for ourselves we did not feel 
the gnawings of hunger as much as we did in the morning. 



30 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

We roasted our meat by the fire and ate it, and lay down on the 
rocks to sleep. The next morning we ate the remnants left from 
supper and started on our third day's march; at the end of 
which we received beef, salt and meal. We knew how to man- 
age the beef, but how about the meal? We had nothing to put 
it in, nothing in which to bake it. The meal was issued to us in 
our hats, in which we mixed it up, and baked before the fire on flat 
rocks, boards or anything we could find. Some drew flour, mixed 
it up without salt or lard, rolled it out in strings, size of a pencil 
and wound it around our ramrods and cooked it before the fire. We 
ate and enjoyed our supper, retired for the night feeling better 
and thankful. Who knows what they can endure until they are 
put to the test. The next morning we moved out again feeling 
weary and worn, for this journey through the wilderness was a 
rough and a tiresome one. We reached Gainesboro, on the 
Cumberland, January 27th, where we were met by a steamer 
from Nashville loaded with clothing, provisions and tents. We 
remained here about ten days resting. We needed rest for our 
bodies and rest for our minds. After crossing the river at Mill 
Springs many of the men whose homes were in East Tennessee 
left us and went directly to them, but returned to their respec- 
tive regiments after a few days' stay at home. This made our 
army small when we reached Gainesboro, from which place we 
moved down the river to opposite Carthage, where we camped 
for a while. Here we had inspection and drill. We who remained 
with the army felt anxious to hear from home, and to let them 
know we were yet in the land of the living. The same feeling 
now was filling each breast that swelled the heart of him who 
wrote, 

"Away from home, how welcome then 
Glad tidings from afar. 
That tells of friends forever dear. 
No matter where we are." 

Our disheartened and drooping spirits were now beginning 
to revive. The runaways, as we called them, were beginning 
to return, and we sang: 

"He who fights and runs away, 
Lives to fight another day. 1 ' 

We picked up courage and our tents, and leaving Carthage 
we headed for Lebanon, Tennessee. As we drew near Leba- 
non we could see plainly the difference in the responsive sym- 
pathy of the people. We began to receive encouragement and 




COLUMBUS C. ETTER. 

Comrade C. C. Etter was born at Mooresburg, Term., October 22nd, 
1836, where he lived until May, 1801, when he joined Company K of the 
Nineteenth Tennessee Confederate regiment. Comrade Etter was a faithful 
grood soldier, and gave up his life early in the battle of his country's cause. 
Was killed in the battle of Shiloh, April, 1862. 



THKOUGH THE WILDERNESS. 31 

greeting by the wayside, for they were in full knowledge of our 
retreat from Fishing Creek. Grandmothers, mothers and sis- 
ters came out and greeted us, giving us their blessings to cheer 
us on our way. No doubt they had sons, husbands and broth- 
ers somewhere in the Confederate army, perhaps some were 
with us. We passed through Lebanon February 16th, and there 
we learned of the fall of Fort Donelson, and that Gen. Albert 
Sidney Johnson was then in Nashville, on his way south with 
his army, and with whom we would unite at Murfreesboro. 
Our political firmament began to look dark and dreary, but we 
took hold of this consolation, 

"There is no day but has its share of light 
And some where in the dark, there shines a star at night. 
And there's no cloud, however black and grim, 
That does not touch the sun light with its outer rim.'" 

We were told the darkest hour of night is just before the 
dawn of day, and soon — 

The sun would shine the brighter 
When the clouds had rolled away. 

With this stimulant of hope we received new courage and 
looked forward for a better and brighter day coining. Leaving 
Lebanon we turned our course toward 

MURFREESBORO, 

where we met Gen. A. S. Johnson, from Bowling, Ky., with his 
own men, and with what troops escaped from Fort Donelson. 
While we were here all the men who had left us after the Fish- 
ing Creek fight, came back to their respective commands, and of 
all who came to us here, none surprised us more than Billie Ves- 
tal, whom we left in Monticello, Ky., as we supposed mortally 
wounded. He was shot through the bowels, the ball entering 
an inch to the right of the umbelicus, and coming out just to 
the right of and missing the spine. He was so very weak he 
could hardly walk. He had slipped away from the Federal hos- 
pital and made for his command. All the sick of Zollicoffer's 
and Carroll's brigades had reported for duty. W. S. Statham, 
colonel of the 15th Mississippi, who had been absent for some 
time, returned and took command of Zollicoffer's brigade, which 
was known after this as Statham 's brigade. 

The union of Johnson's and Crittenden's forces, now made 
one of the largest armies that had yet been brought together in 
Tennessee. The large number of troops now together seemed 



32 



THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 



to infuse new life and vigor into all, and made them feel like 
trying their hand with the enemy again. Here Gen. Johnson 
organized the army into brigades and divisions. He made three 
divisions and seven brigades, with thirty-five regiments of in- 
fantry, besides the artillery and cavalry. The organization 
was as follows: 

Albert Sidney Johnson, General. 

first division. 

maj. gen. j. w. hardee. 

brigades. 

Brig. Gen. Hindman— Five regiments. 

Brig. Gen. Pat Cleburne— Five regiments. 

SECOND DIVISION. 
MAJ. GEN. GEO. B. CRITTENDEN. 





BRIGADES. 


Brig. Gen. Carroll. 


Col. W. S. Statham. 


17th Tenn., Col. Newman. 


15th Miss., Lieut. Col. 


25th " " Stanton. 


22nd " Col. Scheller. 


19th " " Powell. 


19th Tenn., " Cummings. 


37th " " White. 


20th " " Battle. 




28th " " Murray. 




45th " " Lytle. 



THIRD DIVISION. 

BRIG. GEN. PILLOW. 

BRIGADES. 

Brig. Gen. Woods— Five regiments. 
Brig. Gen. Bo wen — Five regiments. 
Brig. Gen. Breckenridge— Five regiments. 
Artillery— Twelve batteries. 
Cavalry— Seven regiments, five battalions. 

The sad news of the disaster at Fishing Creek, and the 
fall of Fort Donelson, the evacuation of Bowling Green, Ky 
spread like wildfire over all the South. A great many of the 
newspapers were full of epithets and denunciations of the direst 
kind against Gen. Johnson. The situation did look gloomy 
at this time, and the newspaper men thought perhaps if they 
had been at the front things would have gone differently. 

They had forgotten that enduring the hardships of camp 



MUKFREESBORO. 33 

life, and fighting the battles at the front were much more diffi- 
cult than sitting around the comfortable fiireside and fighting 
them on paper. Notwithstanding the tirade of abuse heaped 
upon Gen. Johnson by the press, the soldiers who were at the 
front and who knew Johnson, loved him. They did not cen- 
sure him, nor blame any one for the sad changes in affairs, but 
had the utmost confidence in him as their leader. 

Often those who censure most are the ones who do noth- 
ing to bring about that, for which they condemn others for not 
aoing. 



CHAPTER V. 

HISTORIC GROUND. 

GENERAL JOHNSON having completed his organization 
' of the army, and all of the absentees having returned, 
began preparation for a grand move south. He issued 
the following order : 

''Headquarters, Western Dept. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 28th, 1862. 
The column will resume the march to-morrow morning, and 
continue from day to day, by Shelby ville, Fayetteville and 
Decatur, Alabama. The march so arranged as to make about 
fifteen miles a day, so long as the roads permit. 

W. W. Mackall, 
By order of Gen. Johnson. Asst. Adj. Gen." 

So on the morning of the 29th, we moved out for Murfrees- 
boro, passed on through Shelby ville and reached Fayetteville 
March the 4th, and crossing Elk river we pitched our tents on 

HISTORIC GROUND. 

Gen. Jackson's old encampment in the years long gone by 
where we remained for several days. After leaving Fayette- 
ville, we had gone but a short distance when we ascended a high 
ridge on which we traveled as far as Athens, Ala. This ridge 
was almost barren and destitute of water. The evening of our 
first encampment on this ridge we encountered a regular little 
cyclone with a heavy rain. We had halted in a strip of woods 
and had just gotten up all our tents, when the storm came. 
The wind was very heavy— trees were broken off and blown 
down, and limbs were strewed here and there in our camp. Not 
a single tent stood the storm. They were all blown down, and 
we took the rain holding on to our tents to keep them from 
blowing away. On reaching Athens all our tents and camp 
equipage were sent on ahead of us, for what purpose we knew 
not, leaving us to take the rains which were falling heavily and 



HISTOKIC GROUND. 35 

had been for two or three days past, just coming - down in tor- 
rents. Where we were the country was so low and flat that it 
was mostly covered with water, so that at night we had to sit down 
and lean against trees and bushes to sleep, there being not suf- 
ficient ground to lie down on. We crossed the river at Decatur, 
Ala., and passed on through, camping one mile beyond. Here 
we remained two or three days. Push now became the order 
of the day, everything and everybody seemed to be in a hurry. 
On the 15th of March we moved out for Corinth, Mississippi, 
where we pitched our tents on the 20th. 

While Johnson was pushing his men westward to Corinth, 
Beauregard was hurrying from Jackson, Tenn., and Bragg, to 
meet Johnson, with his excellently drilled and disciplined men, 
was on his way from the south. Gen. Vandorn had been 
ordered from the trans-Mississippi with his seventeen thou- 
sand (17,000) men, also to Corinth. 

When these three generals met at Corinth, they had an 
army without organization. Gen. Johnson was the senior officer 
and proceeded as quickly as possible to organize, forming 
corps, which, up to this time had not existed in our army. 
There were made three corps. 

First Corps, under Gen. L. B. Polk 9,130 

Second Corps, under Gen. B. Bragg 13,589 

Third Corps, under Gen. W. J. Hardee 6,789 

With brigades as a reserve under Gen. Brecken- 
ridge, composed of Trabue's, Bowen's and 
Statham's 6,439 

statham's brigade. 

15th Miss., Col. W. S. Statham. 20th Tenn., Col. Battle. 

22nd Miss., Col. Scheller. 28th Tenn., Col. Murray. 

19th Tenn., Col. Cummings. 45th Tenn., Col. Lyttle. 

It was said upon the arrival of Beauregard at Corinth, Gen. 
Johnson tendered him the command of the army, but Gen. 
Beauregard, the brave and good soldier as he was, refused it, 
partly, perhaps, on account of ill health, and probably prefer- 
ring to serve his country as a subordinate and follow the great 
leader, Gen. Johnson. He was physically unable to assume so 
trying and responsible a position. The Federals, under Gen. 
Grant, had concentrated a large force at Pittsburg Land- 
ing on the Tennessee river, about twenty miles from Corinth. 



36 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

Gen. Buel, with another force of twenty-five thousand, was 
on his way to join Grant. Grant had already fifty thou- 
sand men while Johnson had only about forty thousand. 
Johnson was very anxious to attack Grant before Buel arrived, 
and therefore could not await the arrival of Gen. Vandorn, who 
could not reach him for three or four days. So the morning- of 
April the 4th, '62, Gen. Johnson moved out for the front, 
taking two parallel roads leading to Pittsburg Landing, 
which roads came together about one and a half miles south- 
west of Shiloh Church. Hardee moved out first and camped 
on the road near Mackey's. Bragg moved on the road leading 
to Monterey, followed by Polk and Breckenridge. During Sat- 
urday we moved cautiously all day, and at night we halted and 
rested, in close proximity to the enemy. 

THE BATTLEFIELD. 

The battlefield formed a parallelogram of about equal sides. 
The river and our line of battle formed two opposite sides, and 
Owl creek below and Lick creek above the other two opposite 
sides. The two creeks entered about three miles apart, and our 
line was formed about three miles out from the river. The 
ground within this boundary was uneven, being interspersed 
with ridges, ravines and marshy places, with a few clearings in 
the wooded land. There were several small branches, some 
running into the creeks and some into the river. Shiloh church 
is on the road leading from Corinth to Pittsburg Landing, at 
the crossing of the road from Purdy to Hamburg. The Church 
stood about two and a half miles out from the river. There 
were several roads passing through here. Gen. Grant had 
formed his lines with Gen. Sherman on his right wing with five 
divisions; the right of which extended from near Owl creek 
down the Purdy road and by Shiloh Church, and commanding 
all these crossings. Gen. Prentiss and Gen. Stuart formed the 
center, while Gens. Hurlbut and Wallace formed the left wing 
and extended on to Lick creek. Johnson on Saturday evening 
had blazed out his lines through the woods right in the face of 
the enemy, and after dark formed his lines so silently that the 
enemy, though in cannon shot range, did not hear him. On 
our line Gen. Hardee occupied our left wing, Bragg in the center 
and Polk forming the right wing with Breckinridge as reserve 
just in his rear. Here we lay all night quietly resting and wait- 



THE BATTLEFIELD. 'At 

ing for the storm next morning, and like the horse, we could 
almost sniff the coming battle already. 

The two armies lay face to face all Saturday night; the 
enemy like a wild boar in his den, not aroused by any alarm of 
unseen danger, while Johnson like a panther hid in his jungle 
waited opportunity to spring for deadly combat on his unsus- 
pecting foe. Grant certainly was not dreaming of the near 
approach of Johnson, and his videtts were asleep as to John- 
son's movements. 

Early Sunday morning, April the 6th, 1862, Johnson moved 
with as much order as if going on grand review. The enemy 
were completely surprised. Only a few had finished breakfast, 
some were yet in bed and asleep, and none ready or expecting such 
an attack. The enemy, whose encampment our brigade so sud- 
denly and so rudely entered, and, too, without notice, were some- 
what indignant and were thrown into great confusion, but they 
rallied and gave us a soldierly reception. Our men kept pressing 
forward with a determination not only to gain ground, but to 
hold all that was gained. The enemy under a continuous fire of 
musketry and artillery, fell back and formed a second line and 
for a while checked our advance. Hardee on the left drove 
the enemy back on his second line held by McLenard, which 
enabled Hardee now to strike Sherman on the flank forcing 
him to retire with considerable loss of men and several guns. 
Gen. Johnson lead Jackson's, Stewart's, Bowen's and Statham's 
brigades in a successful charge on our right. They advanced 
in "En Echelon" with the batteries in full play. The resistance 
was vigorous and the contest was firm. Dead and wounded 
marked the ground over which they struggled. The enemy was 
now driven back all along the line, his left and his right farther 
than the center. Here Bragg had hard fighting, contending with 
disadvantage of ground and seemingly a superior force. The 
fighting was desperate all along the line. The roar of musketry 
and artillery, the bursting of shells and the cracking of grape 
and canister against the timber, and the zip and the whiz of 
the minnie balls rendered the scene one that beggars descrip- 
tion. Between twelve and one o'clock in the day the enemy 
occupied a position on an eminence on our right where they 
had collected a heavy mass of troops. Up to this time there 
had been four hours of hard fighting, almost an incessant blaze of 
fire all along the line. We had driven the enemy back on our right 



THE BATTLEFIELD. 39 

to this eminence, where they massed their troops' It was held by 
Hid hurt who had been reinforced by three brigades, and there 
they stood in double column defying every attempt of our men 
to dislodge them. Gen. Johnson had ordered Statham's brig- 
ade, in which the old 19th was, and Bowen's, joined by Chal- 
mer's of Wither's division, to charge and drive the enemy from 
this ridge. Statham was on a ridge opposite to that of the 
enemy, and about two hundred yards from them. To charge 
the enemy at this point our brigade had to cross this exposed 
ridge, descend the slope and ascend the one the enemy occu- 
pied commanded and raked by their deadly fire. Here we 
stood delivering and receiving a lire which Gov. Harris said 
was as heavy as any he had heard, and as heavy as any in the 
war. We could not drive them by our tire and to charge them 
seemed like going into the very jaws of death. This position 
was called the 

hornet's nest, 

of which Gov. Harris said, "About one o'clock in the evening 
Gen. Johnson was informed that our extreme right had encoun- 
tered such resistance as prevented further advance. Gen. 
Johnson repaired to it at once. We found our right wing 
posted on a ridge, which upon another parallel ridge in easy 
musket range, the enemy were in great force. Here the firing 
was kept up with great energy by both armies for an hour." 
Gen. Johnson remained upon the line more exposed to the fire 
than any of the soldiers, and rode down the line in front of the 
men with his hat in one hand and said, "They are stubborn, we 
must give them the bayonet, I will lead you." Then the whole 
line moved with a shout toward the enemy with a rapid and 
resistless step, when a sheet of flame bust forth from the Fed- 
eral strong-hold, and blazed along Ihe ridge. What a roar ot 
cannon and musketry ! What a storm of lead and iron hail ! 

The Confederate lines, seemed to wither, to melt away, and 
the dead and dying strewed the dark ravine, but it did not fal- 
ter for an instant. On they went up the hill — the crest was 
gained and the enemy was put to iout. What a baptism of fire! 
Gen. Johnson, in this charge, had one of his shoe soles torn 
away and several balls had gone through his clothing. Although 
the enemy were driven from their strong position, yet as they 
retired, they fired volley after volley at us. 

General Johnson was sitting on his horse watching them, 



40 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

when a minnie ball from one of these retiring 1 volleys did its 
deadly work, severing an artery in his leg - . Just at this moment 
a Federal battery from another point opened on us, and General 
Johnson told Governor Harris to order Statham to charge this 
battery. Governor Harris did so and rode rapidly back to John- 
son just in time to catch him as he reeled from loss of blood and 
began falling from his horse. Governor Harris caught him in 
his arms and lifted him to the ground. He was carried back 
some two hundred yards, just in the rear of the Old Nineteenth, 
where he expired in a short time, his head resting in the lap of 
Governor Harris. 

The General's horse was hit four times and was led from 
the field scarcely able to walk. General Johnson had been at 
the front at other points repeatedly, and at one time was in 
pistol shot of General Sherman, yet some have blamed Stat- 
ham' s brigade with his death because he had led it, with the 
other two brigades, in this charge. 

The charge was ended, and had been successful, and all 
were observing the fleeing foe, when the cruel fates directed 
this random shot that cut the brittle thread of life and the great 
soldier fell, but fell in the hour of victory which his matchless 
generalship had planned and his brave battalions had won. 

Death was riding over every portion of the field, claiming 
his victims by the thousands and gloating over the triumph of 
every hissing missile. It is true that upon no other portion of 
the field did death gather in such a harvest as in this charge in 
which Johnson fell, the last one ever led by him. We must 
pause, shed a tear, and go on. 

Immediately after the death of Johnson, General Beaure- 
gard assumed the command of the army and continued the 
battle. Up to this hour (two o'clock in the evening) there had 
been scarcely an intermission or a lull in the battle, but now an 
occasional pause was observed in the roar of battle. The right 
and the left of the enemy's lines had been driven back, while 
the center seemed to hold its own. Here General Ruggle had 
concentrated twelve batteries in front of Prentiss, who was 
stubbornly holding the center of the enemy's lines. Hardee 
had driven back the enemy before him, killing Gen. W. H. 
Wallace, which uncovered General Prentiss' right, while Polk 
and Breckenridge, closing in on his left, cut Prentiss off, forc- 
ing him to surrender, with three thousand men, late in the even- 



NIGHT ON THE BATTLEFIELD. 41 

ing, about four or five o'clock. General Prentiss surrendered 
his sword to Lieut. Col. F. M. Walker, who was in command <>f 
the Nineteenth Tennessee regiment. Colonel Cummings, being 
wounded, had left the field; also Major Fulkerson. William 
King, of Co. C, was color-bearer, and kept them up where all 
could see. 

Some of Breckenridge's men now exchanged their guns for 
Enfield rifles captured from General Prentiss ; also a few of the 
Old Nineteenth Tennessee exchanged guns. Immediately after 
this, Statham and Bowen pressed forward and gained posses- 
sion of the crest of a hill overlooking the river, and not far 
above the landing, where they endured for awhile a most terrific 
fire from the enemy's gunboats. 

General McClenard being now exposed, on account of Hurl- 
but's retreating column, was assailed by General Hardee. 
Sherman, who was greatly reduced by eight hours hard fight- 
ing, was driven back on the hill, with his right resting on Owl 
Creek, near enough for him to command the bridge just below 
the junction with Snake Creek. Here the battle ended for the 
day about five o'clock in the evening, leaving the enemy on his 
last line, overlooking and crowding the river. 

Our left was within four hundred yards of the bridge, the 
enemy's only crossing of Owl Creek, while our right rested on 
the river above, exposed to the enemy's gunboats, but being 
too close to be used without endangering their own men. It 
was late in the evening when Prentiss was captured, but the 
battle continued, although the men were tired and exhausted 
from the fatigue of the day's struggle. 

Quiet did not reign until after dark. It was now 

NIGHT ON THE BATTLEFIELD 

And the men being sleepy, began adjusting themselves for 
sleep. But can they? The blood-stained field, covered with 
dead and dying, sadly echoed with the groans of the suffering. 
During the night the leaves and underbrush caught fire from a 
bursting shell thrown from the gunboats and burned over con- 
siderable ground occupied by the dead and wounded of both 
armies. It was plainly seen next morning that many had been 
burned who were alive. The men already dead were only 
scorched, while the living were blistered. Oh! the ghastly 
sight presented next day over the burnt field — clothing partly 
burned away and hair singed, eyebrows gone, eyes blood- 



42 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

shotten and swollen lips, showed plainly the destruction of a 
plutonic war. God, viewing the scene with a pitying eye, just 
after midnight sent a refreshing rain, putting out the fire and 
cooling many a feverish brain. We had driven the enemy from 
every position he had taken during the day. They had lost 
thousands in killed, wounded and captured. We, too, had lost 
heavily, and although we were the victors, it was at a terrible 
sacrifice. The day had been a scene of fearful carnage. The 
crash of minnie ball, grape, canister, bursting of shells, and 
the cry of the wounded for water and for help, all made a scene 
of pandemonium. When the battle ended for the day, our 
entire line fell back about one mile and our tired boys laid 
down to rest, with their guns as pillows. They could not sleep. 
Their minds were too much occupied with the results of the 
day, wondering who were killed and wounded, and when they 
looked upon their thinned ranks they were astonished and truly 
thankful they had escaoed amid such a storm of lead and iron 
hail. 

" 'Tis well the night came on 
To cloud the scene of strife 
With darkness, and with rain 
Wash the blood-stained earth to-night. " 

Yes, thousands were sleeping, but they were those who 
would not awake in the coming morning. The stillness of 
the night, with its low murmuring wail of distress that seemed 
to hover close to the ground, was broken only now and then by 
the whir and boom of a stray shot from the enemy's gunboats, 
which were fired at short intervals throughout the entire night, 
as if tolling the lone hours of the funeral watch. Sadness did 
not express the deep, anxious longings of our hearts as the 
hours went by. While we were quiet the enemy was busy. 
Buell had arrived with twenty-five thousand (25,000) fresh 
troops and was hurrying to put them into position, and with 
these our tired but brave boys must contend in the morning. 
Of these, Nelson and Crittenden were put on their left and 
were in front of Polk and Breckenridge, McCook in the center, 
and the rest of their men were in front of Hardee. Brecken- 
ridge opened the attack the morning of the seventh, on our 
right, against Nelson, and the tide of battle rolled down the 
line to our left. Breckenridge 's tired men rushed with such 
vim against Grant's new men as to utterly astonish them, driv- 
ing Nelson at once from his position. A battery coming in hot 



NIGHT ON THE BATTLEFIELD. 43 

haste to Nelson's assistance, barely escaped capture at the 
hands of Cheatham, who had at that moment come to our help. 
At this hour we had gained but little ground and were barely 
holding that on our right, while on our left, where the enemy 
had posted most of their men, we could only hold our own. 
About ten o'clock Breckenridge sent Statham's and Bowen's 
brigades, of his division, to Shiloh Church, where, with Hind- 
man's and part of Cleburn's division, under Hardee, they met 
McCook, whom they repulsed. General Sherman, after the 
battle of Shiloh, in speaking of McCook's advance at this point 
near the church, said: "I saw Williche's 32nd Indiana reg- 
iment advance upon a thicket of white oaks, behind which I 
knew the enemy were in great force, and enter it in fine style. 
Then arose the severest musketry fire I ever heard for at least 
twenty minutes, when the splendid regiment of Williche's had 
to fall back. The old Nineteenth Tennessee was at the recep- 
tion of this charge of the enemy. To-day's fighting was spas- 
modic, charging here and there with much maneuvering. The 
last hard struggle was near Shiloh Church, where the worn out 
Confederates had successfully contended against the enemy. 
We were gaining no ground, nor were we loosing ground. Gen. 
Beauregard, about two o'clock in the evening, ordered a halt, 
when seemingly by mutual consent the battle ended. Just at 
this moment, as the firing subsided all along the line, the 
enemy were reinforced by three fresh brigades from Wood's 
division, but they did not renew the attack. Beauregard at this 
time ordered our (Statham's) brigade with a Kentuckv brigade 
to form at the junction of the roads; the one from Monterey 
to Pittsburg Landing and the other from Purdy to Hamburg, 
to meet any advance of the enemy, and to act as a rear guard 
to the now retiring army. These two roads cross each other at 
Shiloh Church. These two brigades camped Monday night on 
the battle field near where the fight began on Sunday morning. 
Tuesday morning we moved back nearly three miles to Mack- 
ey's where we remained three days. Reader, it is useless to 
attempt a description of the battle field of Shiloh. Language 
would fail to portray it as it was. The dead were piled on each 
other in many places. In the center of the battlefield was a 
pond in and around which were many dead men and several 
horses, both, either killed there or had been wounded and had 
gone there for water and had died. This could be truely called 
the "death-pond" of Shiloh. All over the field the dead lay 



44 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

side by side — the brave "Who wore the blue and those who 
wore the gray" now no longer foes. The wounded of both 
armies, who yet remained on the field, showed the true man- 
hood and brotherly feeling by helping each other as far as pos- 
sible, consoling each other and sharing each other's woes. The 
blue and the gray had fallen on each other and lay as if sleep- 
ing in each other's embrace. Dead horses, broken ambulances 
and shattered caisons lay thickly strewn over all the field, all of 
which made up the sad, sad scene. We could see but part of 
the sad wreck. The loss in the aggregate God only knows, and 
the morning of the eternity will only reveal. Gen. Albert Sid- 
ney Johnson had been killed, Gen. Hardee was wounded, after 
he had his clothes torn by several bullets and Gen. Breckenridge 
was twice hit by spent balls. The old Nineteenth Tennessee 
was in some of the hottest contests. Our brigade was the sec- 
ond in the list of casualties. The brigade had lost one hundred 
and thirty-seven killed, six hundred and twenty-seven wounded 
and supposed captured forty-five. While there are always some 
amusing incidents that occur on a battlefield, there are many 
sad and pathetic scenes during the strife of battle. During the 
first day's fighting John Easterling, of Company C, poor fellow, 
was wearing a blue shade of home-made clothing. A piece of 
shell tore away a greater part of his lower jaw, he cound not 
speak, and wanting help he went up to Lieut. B. F. Moore, of 
Company I. The Lieteiiant did not recognize him and think- 
ing he was a wounded Federal, spoke sharply to him, told him 
to go to the rear where help could be had, where he died very 
soon. 

Our two brigades, Statharn's and the Kentucky brigade, 
after finishing the work assigned them, moved on to Corinth 
Friday noon and went into camp. We are sorry we could not 
obtain a correct list of the casualties of our regiment, but give 
as far as we are able the names of the killed and wounded. 
Lieut. J. M. Sims, of Company F, was wounded and left on the 
field and was captured. After we had returned to Corinth, Mr. 
B. M. Sims, a brother, came to the regiment and learning that 
the Lieutenant was wounded and left on the field, set out at once 
to find him. He was found about midnight in the Federal hos- 
pital unable to walk and suffering. Mr. Sims slipped his 
brother out of the tent and carried him on his back that night 
out through the picket line and five miles before he stopped to 
rest. They lay there the rest of the night. The next morning 



CASUALTIES. 



45 



they were picked up by Forrest's cavalry and taken into 
Corinth and to the hospital. 



THE KILLED. 



Powers. James, Co. A. 

Godby, John 

Rowe, Lewis " " 

Willette. Capt, Jeb. T, Co. B. 

Bains, John 

'Conner, John " C. 

Vance, Sergt, Sam E. " " 

Easterling, John " " 

Roberts, Isaac " " 

Lyons, Dan 

Cooper, Geo. A " " 

Bradford, M " D. 

Kennon, M 

Boofer, Wm. R " " 

Bradley, Sam " E 



Cunning-ham, S. H C 

Curren, Conley. 

Leath, T. J 

Allen, Geo. W. 
Farner, Isaac . . 

Chase, J. T 

York, Charles. . 
Cheek, E. W... 
Montague, J. R 
Walker, Capt, T 

Courtney, N 

Keeling, Frank. . . 
Wolfenburg, K. S 

Etter, C. C 

Webster. E 



H 



WOUNDED. 



Col. D. H. Cummings. 

1. Wright, Thomas.. Co. A. 

2. Gaby, Sam " B. 

3. King, E. R " " 

4. White, John "• C. 

5. Roberts, Jake " " 

6. Johnson, B. J. S.. " " 

7. Harr, Robt " " 

8. Erps, Adrin " " 

9. Pile, John " D. 

10. Webb, Lieut. Ben. " C. 

11. Roberts, Sam " " 

12. Johns, B. J " " 

13. Gray, Al " " 

14. Pactol, Sam " " 

15. Wallace, Lieut. J. A " 



Maj. Abe Fulkerson. 

16. Lincoln, John " 

17. Newport, J. F " 

IS. Shaver, J. A " 

19. Ward, Wm " 

20. Craig, Al " 

21. Sims, Lieut, J. M. " 

22. Rhea, J. A " 

23. Potterfield, Wm... " 

24. Duncan, Sam " 

25. Wilhorn,Jno. (died) " 

26. Buckner, J. M " 

97 



). E. 

F. 

. . 

G. 

H. 
I. 



D. 



E. 
F. 
G. 



H. 



L'Y. Wilkins, Lieut, Doc " " 

28. Brewer Clark " I. 

29. Carmack, John " K. 

30. Speck, Lawrence P " " 

31. Massengill, Felix, Company G, (died, Iuka, Miss.) 

32. Moore, John, Company G, (died, Brownsville, Miss.) 

33. Bruce, Wm., Company G. (died, Mobile, Ala.) 



I). 



CHAPTER VI. 



AROUND CORINTH. 



TWELVE long eventful months had now gone by since the 
Confederate States began battling for a position in the gal- 
axy of nations, and these months had not passed without 
results. They had sealed the destinies of thousands of her 
noble sons. They had brought blight to once happy homes and 
loving hearts. Grim monster death had been busy hanging 
crape on the door knobs of those who had gone out in defense 
of their homes, thus reminding the loved ones there that the 
vacant chair around the fireside would never be filled by them 
again. 

None but God knew the thoughts of the dying as the last 
light of earth was receding from vision. Could they have been 
registered, they would have been, no doubt: 

"'I have for my country fallen, 
Who will care for mother now?" 

All the men in the army had enlisted for only one year, and 
that year had now ended and the war but begun. Now comes 
the true test of patriotism. At the beginning we did not know 
all that war meant by the word war, but now we knew it in all 
its horrors. Our time was now out and we could have honor- 
ably gone home. But no — when we thought of home and what 
brought us out, we could not return as yet. 

"0, I long to see you, mother, 

And the loving ones at home, 
But I can never leave our banner 
'Till in honor I can come." 

We re-enlisted, and that for the war, whether long or short. 
On May 10th the Confederate army re-enlisted till the end. 
In the 

REORGANIZATION 

Many changes were made in the officers of the regiment, and 




MAJOR A. FULKERSON. 

Major Fulkerson was born in Washington county, Va., in May, 1834. 
Graduated at the Virginia Military Institute in 1857. Joined the Nineteenth 
Tennessee regiment, and at the organization, in June, 1861, at Knoxville, 
Tenn., was elected Major of the regiment. At the reorganization, in April, 
1862, Major Fulkerson was made Colonel of the Sixty-third Tennessee regiment. 



REORGANIZATION. 



47 



also in those of the companies. The following- were elected as 
regimental and company officers : 

F. M. Walker Colonel. 

B. F. Mooore Lieutenant-Colonel. 

R. A. Jarnagin Major. 

Arthur Fulkerson Sergeant-Major. 

Dr. J. E. Delaney Surgeon. 

Dr. J. E. Pyott Assistant Surgeon. 

A. D. Taylor Quartermaster. 

J. H. Kennedy Commissary. 

Wm. Bowles Adjutant. 

W. J. Worsham, ) 

Rufus Lamb, ~ 

James Tyner, ) 

COMPANIES. 



Chief Musicians. 



Co. A— D. A. Kennedy Captain. 

F. M. Foust First Lieutenant. 

Thomas Carney Second Lieutenant. 

N. P. Nail Third Lieutenant. 



Co 



Co 



Co 



Co 



Co 



B — J. D. Deaderick Captain. 

J. C. Hammer First Lieutenant. 

R. J. Tipton Second Lieutenant. 

T. M. Brabson Third Lieutenant. 

C— W. C. Harvey Captain. 

M. J. Miles First Lieutenant. 

A. W. Smith Second Lieutenant. 

William' Miles Third Lieutenant. 

D — J. G. Frazier Captain. 

S. J. A. Frazier First Lieutenant. 

A. B. Hodge Second Lieutenant. 

Thos. Cunningham Third Lieutenant. 

E— W. W. Lackey Captain. 

S. B. Abbernathy First Lieutenant. 

Henry A. Waller Second Lieutenant. 

Jake L. Waller Third Lieutenant. 

F — J. H. Hannah Captain. 

J. M. Sims First Lieutenant. 

J. F. Sharp Second Lieutenant. 

Robt. Rhea Third Lieutenant. 



48 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

Co. G — A. L. Gammon Captain. 

Jas. A. Rhea First Lieutenant. 

J. K. P. Gammon ' " Second Lieutenant. 

H. D. Hawk Third Lieutenant. 

Co. H— W. Paul McDermott Captain. 

J. H. Kimborough First Lieutenant, 

Frank S. Hale Second Lieutenant. 

Benj. F. Hoyle Third Lieutenant. 

Co. I— J. D. Lively Captain. 

J. E. Wooding First Lieutenant. 

W. H. Lovejoy Second Lieutenant. 

Wm. Hale Third Lieutenant. 

Co . K— C, W. Heiskell Captain. 

J. H. Huffmaster' ' * " First Lieutenant. 

W. W. Etter Second Lieutenant. 

W. B. Miller Third Lieutenant. 

All the old officers who were not re-elected left us for other 
commands, preferring to be privates under other men, than 
those over whom they had had command. Some were elected 
to higher rank of command in other regiments. After the 
battle of Shiloh, Beauregard began fortifying extensively 
around Corinth. The Federals followed slowly and did 
not press their suit to any greater degree than a cavalry picket 
line. We remained here nearly two months, during which time 
the pickets kept up almost daily a musket and artillery duel. 

The water we had to use was of the poorest kind, very bad 
and only accessible by digging holes in the ground one or two 
feet deep, and allowing them to fill up with seep water. After 
exposure to the sun but a day or two, the water would be full 
of wiggletails, and the use of this water soon began to tell upon 
the health of the army. The sick list ran up at a fearful rate, 
and the mortality increased daily. Beauregard sent the sick 
away as fast as they could be moved. While many died from 
sickness contracted in camp, many died from their wounds re- 
ceived in the battle at Shiloh. We give but a partial list of 
deaths of the old 19th, from sickness while around Corinth. 

DIED. 

McKinney, William. . . .Co. A. Burnett. James Co. H. 

Salts, John " B. Graves, Wash " " 

Hampton, William " " Douglas, H. D... " " 

Webb, Lieut. Ben " C. Williams, C. F. " " 



AROUND CORINTH. 49 

Cook, John " " Hall, John M Co. I 

Flenor, Pete " " Melton, A. J " " 

Roberts, Sam " " Parker, L. D " " 

Hari', Robert " " Langrace, R ' K 

DePue- - " B. Cross, A. J " " 

Gray, James " " Duncan, William 

Grant, John " G Drake Samuel 

Soon after Gen. Beauregard had reached Corinth, Gen. 
Vanclorn, with his command of seventeen thousand (17,000) 
men, arrived. He should have reached the battlefield of Shiloh 
Sunday evening, and met Gen. Buel's fresh troops. If hejiad, 
we would have made it more lively for Grant, Monday, than 
we did. May the 25th, 1862, Beauregard began moving all his 
munitions of war from Corinth, and as soon as this was accom- 
plished, the army began falling back towards Tupelo, Miss. 
The morning of the 25th our regiment was sent down the 
Mobile and Ohio Railroad, about eight miles to protect a bridge 
across a creek running through a low, swampy country, and a 
perfect jungle. In this place we lay about one week, with 
scarcely enough ground above water on which to lie down. 
The undergrowth was so dense that just now and then, and here 
and there, the sun could get through the foliage to give life to the 
struggling vegetation, dying for want of sun-light. About noon 
of the second day of June we crawled out from our hiding place 
in the swamp, out of the mud and water, on to dry ground, to 
sun and dry ourselves. We moved out from this place without a 
single regret, and took the railroad for Baldwin, Miss., where 
we stopped but a day. From here we moved on to Tupelo, 
where now the entire army was encamped. In the jungle or 
on the high-lands, in camp or on the march, in the rain or 
stretched out lizzard-like taking a sun-bath, no jollier set of 
men could be found than the Old Nineteenth Tennessee ; always 
willing, ever ready to go where duty called. 

Gen. Beauregard took command of the army on the field of 
Shiloh, and finished the battle when he could scarcely keep in 
the saddle. His ill health was his great impediment. And 
owing to the continued failure of health, he turned over the 
command of the army to Gen. Braxton Bragg June the 10th, 
1862. Soon after taking command, Gen. Bragg sent a portion 
of the army to Vicksburg, under Gen. Breckenridge, and with 
the remainder of the army he returned to Tennessee. Statham's 



50 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

brigade, in which was the Old Nineteenth, was one of the brig- 
ades sent to Vicksburg. June the 19th, Gen. Breckenridge re- 
ceived the following order : 

Special order, \ Headquarters Western Department. 

No. - J Tupelo, Miss., June 18th, 1862. 

Breckenridge's division of the Army of Mississippi, will be 
prepared to move in light inarching order with all possible 
celerity, with six days' rations, one hundred rounds of ammu- 
nition for small arms and the current supply for field batteries. 
Brig. Gen. Preston will report at once to the commander of the 
forces for special instructions. 
By" command of Gen. Bragg. Geo. W. Brent, 

Act. Chief of Staff. 

McClung's battery, having been transferred to our brigade, 
became part of it. We moved out from Tupelo on the 20th 
with one division, composed of four brigades. Our line of march 
from Tupelo, was northwest across the country, through a land 
not very rich and poorly watered. We suffered for water, often 
going miles without finding a well, cistern or running stream. 
The horses suffered alike with the men. 

We reached Abbeville on the N. 0. & N. W. R. Ry, on the 
25th of June, where we rested for the day. Here we took the 
train and passed through Jackson on to Vicksburg, which place 
we reached on the evening of July 1st, 1862. 



CHAPTER VII. 



VICKSBURG. 



\/^ICKSBL t R(t, the city on the hills, like her ancient sister, 
Rome, her foundations are the eternal hills. The hills are 
called "Walnut Hills," and each one stands alone, or 
seemingly so, while in truth it is a ridge broken along here by 
deep ravines. The railroad from Jackson finds its way to the 
wharf through one of these ravines. On these hills we had our 
large siege guns, making a splendid fort, underneath which was 
the magazine, deep beneath the reach of the enemy's shells. 
Vicksburg was a romantic place. Her several hills were cov- 
ered with beautiful residences, with large yards full of flowers 
and shrubbery, and many gardens growing figs, pomegranates, 
artichokes, etc., not such as we were used to, for these were on 
trees and shrubbery instead of in the ground. We lived well 
here. The scenes and the surroundings were so different from 
anything we had yet met. Our encampment was out from 
the city about two miles. Our water supply for the first few 
days was from an old pond, full of green moss and wiggletails, 
and we had to filter the water we used. We were on picket 
duty along the levy about five days and nights in each week. 
Here again we were under fire of the enemy's gunboats. There 
were two fleets, one above and one below the city. The third 
day of July we lay on the levee, below the city, and remained 
there all night. We expected the enemy to begin the celebra- 
tion of the Fourth of July early the next morning by shelling 
us from the two fleets. Early in the morning of the Fourth we 
moved up from the bottoms on to higher grounds, directly under 
one of our large batteries, and were in plain view of both fleets 
all day. Our most sanguine expectations of a lively day from 
shot and shell of the enemy's gunboats and mortar boats were 
sadly disappointed. Everything was strangely silent. The 
sun this morning (the fourth) seemed to spread a pall of silence 



52 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

over everything, and not until it had climbed the eastern hori- 
zon and passed the zenith was the monotony broken. There 
had not been a day, not even a Sabbath day, so quiet as this 
one so far had been. About two o'clock in the evening one of 
our large guns sent a shell whizzing through the air, inquiring 
of the enemy why they were so silent, when one solitary shot 
from the enemy's lower fleet came in reply, and silence reigned 
again until night spread her dark mantle over all. Constantly 
the two fleets kept us on the lookout day and night. Shells, 
two hundred-pounders, were bursting over our heads and all 
around us continually. The air was kept full of flying missiles, 
falling here and there, and often wounding women and children 
in their homes and on the streets. Shells would go crashing 
through their residences. The streets were kept torn up by the 
shells going into the ground and bursting, tearing up holes suf- 
ficient to bury a horse in. The soil being sandy, it was fun for 
the boys when one of these would go four or five feet in the 
ground, to gather around the opening, when the explo- 
sion of the shell would throw dirt all over them. The lower 
fleet was about three and a half miles below the city and the 
upper one about three miles above, directly opposite the city 
across the peninsular. The hills around the city and below had 
many beautiful residences on them. There was one large house 
on one of these hills not far from the lower fleet, from the top 
of which the fleet could be seen plainly. The boys would 
gather on top of this house and watch the maneuvering of the 
fleet. One day the boys of the Old Nineteenth were on top of 
the house and had attracted the attention of the enemy and 
they made the house a target. The first shot came so close the 
boys got down and off, none too soon for the second shot demol- 
ished the house. The gunboats were very restless, moving 
about, staying in one position but a short time. Each fleet had a 
small boat, the boys called the "fiee," they were continually on 
the run, to first one boat and then another. While we were 
here, the Federals began cutting a canal across the peninsular. 
They worked principally at night, for during the day our guns 
made it too warm for them to stay in the canal. 

GUNBOAT HUNT. 

For several days the Federals had two mortal' boats tied up 
to the bank on our side of the river. The Old Nineteenth and a 
part of the Fifte mth Miss., under Col. Walker, were sent down 




£ OF 



54 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

to investigate the right they had taken in so doing, and to take 
them in if necessary. The day was an exceedingly hot one, 
and but little air was stirring. The road was graded, cutting 
through the small hills and when we would get into one of these 
cuts the heat was so oppressive that it was almost intolerable. 
The distance we had to go was about four miles, and many of 
the men were overcome by the heat, fell by the wayside, com- 
pletely exhausted. There were more Mississippians fell out on 
account of the heat than Tennesseeans. The writer gathered 
leaves and put them in his hat changing them every few min- 
utes, yet he came very near giving it up at one time. The sun 
light seemed to have gone out, everything became dark. He 
staggered and came very near falling. Sitting down for a while 
this soon wore off and he moved on alright. Finally we 
reached the river bottoms across which we must go, through 
marshy places, mud and lagoons. There were bamboo briars 
in abundance, whose long thorny arms reaching out for every- 
thing that passed, were ahead of and awaiting us. We fail 
to express it when we say that it was with great difficulty we 
picked our way acrosse the bottom and reached the levee 
beyond, upon whose crest for some distance above and below us 
was a thick, heavy cane brake, which completely hid us from 
view of the enemy. On reaching the cane brake we found the 
object of our search lay about one hundred yards below us. 
Moving cautiously down the levee behind the cane, until we 
thought we were far enough, and were even with the boats, we 
made a rush forward to the river. The lower end or left wing 
of our column fell in about twenty yards above the nearest 
boat. Out in the river before us lay the entire fleet like a small 
village on the water. The two boats were moored close to the 
bank and the men were out, some on the bank sleeping, some 
playing cards and others on the deck. Little did they dream of 
danger. One or two volleys from our guns sent several of them to 
their long homes, just how many were killed we could not tell. 
It was only a moment's work and we had to take shelter behind 
the elevation of the levee just in time to save ourselves, where we 
had to remain for some time. Oh, my! It seemed as if the 
very gravels and rocks from the river's bed arose in their 
defense and came crashing through the cane after us. From 
the side of every boat came shot and shell, grape and canister 
until the boat seemed a blaze of fire and one continuous roar 
of cannon. As soon as the firing subsided sufficiently for us to 



VICKSBURG. 55 

venture from our hiding, we moved out while the enemy kept 
up the firing 1 which hurried us on. We did not go out 
in as as good order as we went in, nor were we as partic- 
ular in picking our way. The grape kept coming too plenti- 
fully for comfort and the writer made for a large cypress tree 
that stood just ahead of him, when just before he reached it and 
within two steps of it, a four pound shot went through the tree a 
little above his head. Thinking it but little safer behind the 
tree than anywhere else, he moved on. Several of the men lost 
their shoes in the mud. Capt. Deaderick mired up in the quick- 
sand so he could not move, and two men had to help him and 
they too, came near sticking. It was said one man lost his 
breeches, torn off by the bamboo and the thorns. We lost two 
men, supposed killed and two wounded. It was certainly a 
"wild goose chase," and was not as successful as was our trip 
to Goose Creek in Kentucky. But then, gunboats are not as 
easily handled as salt. We returned to camp and had many a 
hearty laugh over our adventure in the "gunboat hunt." On 
one of these walnut hills, an Englishman had a fine residence in 
a beautiful, large, grassy yard full of shrubery and flowers. In 
this yard our regiment passed one or two afternoons and nights 
each week resting under the shade of the trees. Here we were 
in plain view of the upper fleet. Our continued presence at- 
tracted the attention of the enemy and they would shell us, the 
shells passing through the yard and burst near by. This raised 
the ire of the old Englishman and he soured on us. He would 
have quickly driven us out and off of his premises had he 
the power. After a few shells had gone through his yard and 
had demolished some of his shrubbery, thinking to fortify 
against the enemy's shell he raised the English flag on top of 
his house and also on his barn. So we rested under the shadow 
of the English flag as well as that of the Confederate ; while in 
sight in the distance, the stars and stripes floated in the breeze. 
The old Englishman soon learned that his flag did not put eyes 
to the shells of the Federal guns. For one day he was in his 
barn currying his cow, which was a daily business with him, 
when a shell came crashhig through the barn, barely missing 
him and his cow and went on, on its frightful mission to scare 
some one else. As usual we had to keep up drill and inspec- 
tion. We had in our regiment a dutchman, and judging from 
his physique he was of lager beer fame, having a large "bay 
window." One morning Lieut. Col. Moore was inspecting the 



56 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

regiment and was getting the men in line. This dutchman, 
whose name was Godhelp, seemed with great difficulty to get 
into line, his "bay window" being too large. The Colonel 
called out to him, "You dutchman, Godhelp, put in your 
belly." 

On July 10th General Breckenridge issued the following 
order : 

General Order ) Headquarters Breckenridge's Division, 
No. 2. } Vicksburg, Miss., July 10, 1862. 

Hereafter the several brigades composing this division will 
be numbered as follows: First brigade, Brig. Gen. Bowen; 
Second brigade, Brig. Gen. Helm; Third brigade, Brig. Gen. 
Preston; Fourth brigade, Col. W. S. Statham. 
By command of Maj. Gen. Breckenridge. 

John T. Pickett, 

Asst. Adj. Gen. 

Our brigade was composed of the same regiments as when 
at the battle of Shiloh, and was the fourth in the present divis- 
ion. On the 16th there was read in the brigade the following 
order concerning a boat that was then anchored in the Yazoo 
river, above Vicksburg: 

Camp of the Hudson Battery, 
Near Vicksburg, Miss., July 16, 1862. 
Capt. W. C. McCawley, Assistant Adjutant-General of the Sec- 
ond Brigade, Breckinridge's Division: 
Dear Sir — I received a circular, of date July loth, calling 
for volunteers to go on board the Arkansas Ram to attack 
the fleet just below us. Respectfully, 

H. B. Helm, 
Brig. Gen. Second Brigade. 

This was news to us, for we did not know we had a gunboat 
so near. This call was made in all the regiments of the brigade. 
Tlir Old Nineteenth responded, which she always did, to any 
duty in any emergency. A detail was sent from our regiment 
to Captain Brown, who was in command of the boat. A few 
days after the detail had been sent from the brigade, there was 
read the following notice, which seemed to show there had been 
*ome trouble: 



vicksburg. 57 

Headquarters Fourth Brigade, 

Vicksburg, Miss., July 20, 1862. 
Major Pickett, Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Dear Sir— I have the honor to report, after making exam- 
ination, that the lieutenant and men who volunteered from my 
brigade and went on board the Arkansas are there yet and have 
not been ashore with the purpose of leaving the boat. The 
lieutenant is distressed that such a report should be made con- 
cerning him and his men. Direction will be given that they 
remain until otherwise ordered from your headquarters or by 
Captain Brown. I make this report at the request of Col. W. S. 
Statham, commanding brigade, who is now in bed with a very 
hot fever. The six volunteer firemen called for yesterday were 
sent to the Arkansas late yesterday evening. 

I am, very respectfully, 

Harry P. Thornton, 

Act'g. Ass't. Adjt. Gen. 

Col. W. S. Statham, our brigade commander, had been 
complaining for several days, although he had been out nearly 
every day. The communication just given was the last one he 
ever wrote or dictated. He grew worse rapidly and August 1st 
he surrendered to the grim monster death. All the men loved 
Colonel Statham and sorrowfully gave up their brigade com- 
mander, and while they deeply mourned his departure, they 
consoled themselves that his was but a transfer of his enroll- 
ment from the army on earth to the one in the beautiful beyond. 

While here we were kept busy day and night on the lookout 
for first one thing and another. The enemy's shells annoyed 
us, but there was another foe we had to contend with, more 
annoying than the enemy's shells — the musquitoes, or, as the 
boys called them, "gallinippers." Roll up in your blanket ever 
so well, they would bite you. They would either get on the 
blanket with you and roll up with you, or they would bite you 
through all the folds. The boys said ' 'gal or no gal, they had the 
nippers, ' ' and right well did they ply them. There were barking 
lizards and other curious things. When we first moved on to 
the hills overlooking the river, there was a cluster of bushes 
near by. In them were these lizards, and they would, every 
now and then, begin to yelp just like puppies. After night the 
enemy's shells were more entertaining than any other time, 
the fuse of the shells could be seen from the time they left the 



58 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

gun until they burst. Often six or eight would go up at one 
time following each other, if the night was cloudy, the shells 
would go up through the clouds and be lost to sight for a time. 
When the bursting time came they lost all their beauty for the 
flying pieces of shells made it uncomfortable and dangerous. 

"THE ARKANSAS RAM." 

The Arkansas Ram, a gun-boat of which notice has already 
been made, was then in the Yazoo river about twenty miles 
above Vicksburg. Her sides, top and bottom were of railroad 
iron, she floated deep in the water, was well equipped with large 
guns. She made her appearance in the Mississippi July 16th. 
To get into Viccksburg she had to pass the upper fleet. Soon 
as the black smoke began to ascend from the low smoke stack 
of the Ram, and was seen nearing the Mississippi river, a small 
swift steamer belonging to the enemy that had been for some 
time lying in wait, watching the movements of the Ram, 
turned her course homeward as fast as the current of the river 
and her engines could propel her, to give warning that the Ram 
was coming. Out of the mouth of the Yazoo into the "Father 
of waters" she came midway of the stream, she floated quietly 
yet defiantly for the wharf at Vicksburg. About six o'clock in 
in the morning she came in sight of the fleet that was awaiting 
her and was careful to give ample room. The enemy was en- 
thusiastic in their demonstrations and gave the Ram loud and 
continuous salute. The Ram was as courteous and returned 
the fire with a vim. She moved slowly, nor turned out of 
her way, and when her broadside presented to their boat she 
gave them shot after shot the enemy did not relish. On she 
came triumphantly into court, having suffered considerably 
from the enemy's shot and shell, and with her crew almost 
annihilated. Having lost twenty-five killed, thirty wounded. 
Hair, brains and blood were strewn everywhere in the boat. 

James Tyner, who was just only fifteen years old when he 
enlisted in Co. I, was given an honorable discharge by Lieut. 
J. E. Wooding, commanding company. Rev. D. Sullins, Brig- 
adge Quartermaster, gave him transportation home. James 
Tyner was our bass drummer and while he made a good and 
faithful soldier, yet his young and tender age forbid his remain- 
ing longer. Lode Walker, Henry and Rufus Staples, of Com- 
pany H, were transferred to other companies in other com- 
mands. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OUR stay in Vicksburg was, for us, romantic and full of 
thrilling events, though some of them were of too shaky 
a nature to be pleasant. Towards the close of our stay 
here nearly all the men contracted chills, which constituted the 
shaking part of our experience. The weather was very hot and 
sultry. Dr. Montgomery, of Mississippi, assisted our surgeon, 
Dr. Delaney, and had charge of the chill department. 

Our boys began to be homesick and long to leave the land 
of flowers, magnolias and chills, but no furloughs nor transfers 
were granted. 

As has been stated, the death of Col. W. S. Statham oc- 
curred August 1st, and after his death, Brig. Gen. Clark took 
command of our brigade. The next day after Gen. Clark took 
command orders were received for all able for duty to be 
ready to move at a moment's notice for 

BATON ROUGE. 

A good number of our men were chilling, which left few 
able to respond to this call. Gen. Breckenridge left for Baton 
Rouge with two divisions of two brigades each. The first divis- 
ion was commanded by Brig. Gen. Clark, and was composed of 
the second and fourth brigade and commanded respectively by 
Col's Hunt and Smith. The second division was commanded 
by Brig. Gen. Ruggle and was composed of the first and third 
brigades, commanded respectively by Col's Allen and Thomp- 
son. We had with our brigade two guns of Henderson's battery, 
one gun of Cobb's battery. As soon as Gen. Breckenridge left for 
Baton Rouge, the enemy's lower fleet also left and was closely fol- 
lowed by the Arkansas Ram. We reached Baton Rouge late in the 
evening of the fourth, and formed our lines after dark with Gen. 
Clark on our right, and Gen. Ruggle on the left. Early in the 
morning of the 5th, Gen. Clark advanced on the Grenwell Spring 
road and as soon as it was light enough to see, Gen. Ruggle 
opened the fight by an attack on the enemy's pickets and soon 



60 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

his whole line was engaged. He soon drove the enemy from all 
his positions. He started in with a cheer and a shout, and the 
little army moved forward with the impetus courage of mighty 
force, capturing two pieces of artillery. Just at this time Col. 
Allen fell, loosing both legs from a cannon shot; and following 
this very soon Col. Thompson was wounded. On our right 
Gen. Clark pressed the enemy back at every point, but was 
resisted with great stubbornness. After several hours of hard 
fighting he drove the enemy back to his encampment in a large 
grove, just in the rear of the State penitentiary. Here the bat- 
tle was most obstinate and fierce, and where the first division 
suffered the greatest loss. Here Col. Hunt, commanding the 
second brigade, was shot down, and Gen. Clark, commanding 
the division, was severely wounded. The third brigade on our 
left having exhausted its ammunition was ordered to fix bayo- 
nets and support the fourth brigade in a charge with bayonets. 
Our whole line had suffered from the gunboats until we had 
driven the enemy in, so close the boats could do us no harm. It was 
now ten o'clock in the morning and the Arkansas Ram, which 
should have been on hand and putting in her best work, had 
not yet opened her mouth. At half-past ten, when our men 
had driven the enemy from their last encampment in the grove 
and where the fight was a bloody one, "they broke and ran down 
the streets followed by our men firing on them at every step 
until they took shelter in the arsenal and barracks. It was now 
noon, and our men exhausted from heat and thirst, withdrew 
under a galling fire from the enemy's gunboats. We expected 
to find water in all of the cisterns but were disappointed, and 
kept on in search of it. But finding none we returned to 
the front, and succeeded in obtaining a scanty supply from a 
few cisterns. All this time the boats were shelling us, but here 
on this line we remained until nearly night. 

Having no picks and shovels, and not being able to pro- 
cure any in the city, we gave up the field with its dead to be 
buried by the Federals. 

The Ram never showed up, the Captain reported that the 
machinery gave out and could not be worked— he abandoned 
her, then blew her up. 

The battle of Baton Rouge was a bloody little fight, we 
moved all our wounded to comfortable quarters, sending to 
Jackson, Miss., all who could bear moving, leaving the dead on 



BATON ROUGE. 61 

the field. Breckenridge had but a small force. He lost one 
division and two brigade commanders and a great many killed 
and wounded. 

Of the Old Nineteenth, Thomas White was wounded through 
the hips; Lieut. J. M. Sims was wounded in the leg, the same 
leg in which he was wounded at Shiloh ; Emmett White was 
killed in this battle; Elbert Roberts, of Knox county, Tenn., 
was also killed; he belonged to Ruggles' command, and was a 
kinsman of the writer. The Old Nineteenth Tennessee, while 
she could not boast of her numbers engaged, could boast of grit 
and nerve, for many of our regiment were barely able to walk. 
Lieutenant Etter fought through this battle with a chill on him, 
shaking so he could hardly go, and following this ague was a 
high fever and intense thirst, yet through the heat of the day 
and the. torture of this chill and fever he never left the ranks. 
All of the sick of the regiment who remained in camp at Vicks- 
burg had the nerve and would have gone into this fight, but did 
not have the physical strength. Many who did go, ought to 
have remained in camp. Immediately after the battle of Baton 
Rouge, Breckenridge ordered all the troops who remained in 
Vicksburg to report at Jackson, save just sufficient force to 
garrison and hold the forts. So when we returned to Jackson 
we found the remainder of the army there. While here at Jack- 
son, Colonel Cummings, our old colonel, visited us and we were 
right glad to see him again and shake his hand. General Breck- 
enridge ordered inscribed on the flag of the Old Nineteenth Ten- 
nessee regiment the names of all the battles we were in, viz: 
Fishing Creek, Shiloh, Vicksburg and Baton Rouge. Verily, 
of the Old Nineteenth Tennessee regiment, none were ashamed, 
but all were proud of her record. 

We were, and had been encamped around Jackson for sev 
eraldays. Since we started out, had gone through many rough 
scenes, and many had been pleasant. We would have enjoyed 
our stay in Vicksburg much more had it not been for the chills, 
yet as it was, our soldiering there was romantic and exciting. 
Gen. Breckenridge made some changes in our brigade which 
the following order shows : 

General Order, ) Jackson, Miss., Palmer House, 

No. 23. j September, 7th, 1862. 

The 4th, 5th and 6th Kentucky regiments, and Cobb's bat 
tery will for the present, constitute a brigade under the com 
mand of Col. R. P. Trabue and be called the first brigade. 



62 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

The 19th, 20th and 45th Tennessee regiments and McClung's 
battery, will form another brigade under the command of Col. 
F. M. Walker, and be called the second brigade. 
By command of Maj. Gen. Breckenridge. 

Jno. A. Buckner, 
Maj. and Asst. Adj't, Gen. 

In this reorganization of the brigades, the Fifteenth Missis- 
sippi, which had been with us so long, ever since our encamp- . 
ment at Cumberland Ford, Ky., sharing our joys and hardships 
on all our long marches, standing side by side with us in all 
battles, journeying with us over mountains and through val- 
leys, now left us, and we bid good-bye to our old, true and tried 
friends. Also the Twenty-second Mississippi, that fell in with 
us at the organization under Gen. A. S. Johnson at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn. We had been encamped within the city limits for 
some days, but on the 8th of September we moved out six 
miles from Jackson, where we adjusted our payrolls, to keep 
in remembrance that there was such a thing called money. 

Here we drew eleven months' pay, clothing and provisions 
were issued, and we were happy. The money we drew, was in 
uncut sheets, and sixty dollars to each rnivate. The paymas- 
ter's tent was one mile from camp. Jake Willeford who had a 
"chuck-a-luck" bank won all the money the men received be- 
fore they reached camp. All the sick, unable for duty, were 
sent to the hospital in the city, where J. B. Irwin and S. M. 
Jenkins, of Company F, and S. W. Riley, of Company I, died. 

Somehow a happy infatuation got hold of us just now, 
rumor was rife in camp that we were on the eve of going home. 
But we know 

"Rumor is a pipe, 
Blown by surmise and conjecture 
Of so easy and so plain a note, 
The still discordant multitude 
< !an play upon it." 

While we were enjoying the happy thought of a "Happy home- 
ward bound," came the following order: 

Special Order, ) Headquarters, Breckenridge 's Division, 
No. 17. } Jackson, Miss., Sept, 9th, 1862. 

The second brigade of this division will be at the railroad 
station in Jackson, and under command of Col. F. M. Walker, 
will move at eight o'clock to-morrow morning, and take the 




LIEUTENANT H. D. HAWK. 

Lieutenant Hawk was born in Sullivan County, Tenn., joined (Company 
Gr, of the Nineteenth Tennessee, in June, 1861. At the reorganization at 
Corinth in 1862, he was elected Third Lieutenant of Company G. In May 
1S63, he was promoted to Second Lieutenancy, and was wounded in the battle 
of Chicamauga. He made a faithful good soldier through the war and was at 
the last roll call of the regiment in 1865. 



BATON ROUGE. 63 

cars for the north. The commanding officer will report to Brig-. 
Gen. Villipigne at Holly Springs, Miss., (or beyond if he has 
moved) until the arrival of the Major General commanding the 
division. 
By order of Maj. Gen. Breckenridge. 

• J. L. Robertson, 
Capt. and Asst. Adj't. General. 

We left our camp the morning of the 10th, somewhat dis- 
appointed, and took the cars for Holly Springs, instead of for 
home. We started out in one of the hardest rains that had 
fallen on us in Mississippi. 

It seems as if rain was one of the concomitants of a sol- 
dier's life. We boarded an old cattle train, all the cars were 
open but covered, slatted and filthy beyond description. We 
were on this train one whole day and night, no protection from 
the rain, which poured down on us all the way. How we longed 
for the enjoyment and pleasure of walking again. The only 
place the boys could lie down, was on top of the cars, where 
they had the full benefit of the rain. Inside the cars was almost 
too filthy to even stand. We finally reached Holly Springs, 
and got off the cars, wet, muddy, nasty and mad. We were 
not to be envied either in feelings or in looks, all sleepy and 
tired out; and if we had been attacked by the enemy, however 
small the force, we could neither have fought nor run. We 
moved up the railroad towards Grand Junction one mile and 
encamped on a small stream that reminded us very much of 
Camp Zollicoffer in Kentucky, where just one year ago we were. 
How little then did we think what was before us ; what long 
marches without anything to eat, and the sleepless night 
watches that were in store for us. The work of the inexorable 
"Fates," like the coral builders, was unseen yet they wove for 
us a journey rough and sure. 

It is well we cannot lift the veil and see the coming events. 

"If this were so, 
How many viewing their progress through, 
What perils to come, what crosses to endure 
Would shut the book and sit him down to die.,' 

After completing the work we were sent hereto do, (and I 
must confess there was nothing here for us to do), we again 
took the cars and retured to Jackson; but we did not stop, 
went right on to Meridian, which place we reached September 



64 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

the 22d, where we rested for a few days. Here Gen. Brecken- 
ridge made us a cheering-, patriotic speech; a farewell, for he 
was going to turn us over to another command. The next 
morning we rceived the following order : 

Special Order, ) Headquarters, Breckenridge's Division, 
No. 27. } Meridian, Miss., Sept. 24th, 1862. 

Col. F. M. Walker will move with his, the second brigade, 
by rail, to Mobile, Ala., thence to Montgomery and to Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. ; taking his tents, ammunition and fifteen days' 
rations. 
By order of Maj. Gen. Breckenridge. 

John A. Buckner, 
Maj. and Asst. Adj't. General. 

This "/was the last order Gen. Breckenridge ever gave our 
brigade. We bade him adieu. Again we boarded the cars, 
this time for home. Our boys were happy, some danced, some 
sang "Homeward bound" and all felt jolly. 

Just before the train pulled out from Meridian, in the car 
in which the writer was, all were jolly, eating and dancing in 
turn, when one of our number fell over dead. Our dancing was 
cut short and a pall of sadness mantled our jollification. Andrew 
Flenor, of Company C, was sitting down eating, when suddenly 
he fell over dead. We supposed he had choked to death. Poor 
Andrew had ieceived his furlough home to return no more. 
His brother Pete preceded him but a few months, having died 
at Corinth just after the battle of Shiloh. He was gently lifted 
from the car and with sorrowing hearts we left him in Meridian. 
It seemed more sad than had he been killed. At the very acme 
of his joys of soon seeing home and being with loved ones 
again, he yielded to a higher mandate. This was the first death 
of the kind in our regiment, and it seemed to weigh upon the 
hearts of the boys more than had he fallen in battle. 

We moved out for Mobile and did not make any halt longer 
than to get aboard the steamer, and on our way across the bay 
a soldier fell overboard and was lost. He disappeared before 
succor could reach him. Brave comrade, we can not follow 
thee with solemn tread and funeral inarch to the grave, but we 
can sing: 

"Sleep, we give thee to the wave 
Red with life's blood from the brave. 
Fare thee well!" 



HOMEWAKD BOUND. 65 

So, one by one, our ranks are thinning'. In battle array, or 
the quiet camp, death is claiming all, his own, and soon the 
soldiers' big roll-call will be on the other shore, where the 
beautiful bivouac will never break up. 

We landed from the steamer at the wharf in the city of 
Tensas, where we took the cars for Montgomery, through which 
we passed without halting, and on to West Point where we 
remained for a few days. Leaving here we passed through 
Atlanta, Dalton, Ga., and on to Knoxville, Tenn., where we 
arrived September 30th, 1862, after a long and tedious journey 
with exposure and anxious waiting at almost every station on 
the way. It seemed when we were in the biggest hurry, the 
slower was our progress, and we seemed to halt by the way for 
the least trivial excuse. It seemed the great anxiety for our 
reaching home, was "the burden that retarded our speed. But 
after all we arrived at Knoxville, and our regiment was given a 
six days' furlough. At Dalton, Ga., our regiment left the other 
regiments of the brigade, the 20th, 28th, and 45th Tennessee 
regiments went on to Chattanooga. 

At Knoxville our men separated, and each one went to his 
respective home, to be greeted by loved ones and welcomed by 
friends, and too, we can say with none the less joy, by the old 
faithful watch-dog. 

''It was sweet to hear the watch-dog's honest bark 
Bay deep-mouthed welcome as we drew near home, 

And sweet to know an eye would watch our coming 
And grow the brighter when we come." 



CHAPTER IX. 



AT HOME AGAIN. 



VI THAT a joy to be at home. More than a year had gone by, 
\\ months of danger, of anxious waiting by loved ones at 
home. Reader, did time ever fly more rapidly with you 
at one time more than another? If so, you can appreciate, 
when we say we had scarcely finished shaking hands of wel- 
come until the good-bye, "God bless you," were ringing in our 
ears. How quickly these six days went by. They were gone 
and as the camp may be called the home of the soldier it can be 
said, again the boys are gathering home. Our camp was at 
Knoxville and where we awaited orders. No doubt many re- 
luctantly gave up the comforts around the old hearth-stones, 
for the cold camp-fires and rigid discipline of army life. "But 
duty calls, and we must go." 

Officers as well as men came in slowly and not near all had 
come in when we received orders to move out for Loudon. We 
left Knoxville the 15th of October, 1862, and reached Loudon, 
where we remained for a few days and where all the men came 
up. Col. F. M. Walker had been assigned to duty somewhere 
else, and Lieut. Col. B. F. Moore was in command of the reg- 
iment. Colonel Moore was a strict disciplinarian; he never 
issued an order but what he intended it to be carried out. One 
night he went out and around in rear of the sentinel post below 
the bridge overlooking the river and threw a rock or two near 
where the sentinel stood, to attract his attention, then went up 
to the sentinel. The sentinel saw who it was, but permitted the 
colonel to come on without a challenge. The colonel called the 
corporal of the guard and had the sentinel relieved and put 
under arrest. The next morning the colonel released the pris- 
oner with a reprimand and told him to do so no more. We left 
Loudon October 30th, and passing on through Chattanooga, did 
not stop until we reached Bridgeport, Ala., where we remained 




LIEUTENANT-COLONEL J. G. DEADRICK. 

Colonel James G. Deadriek was born in Jefferson county, April, 1838. 
He joined Company B, Nineteenth Tennessee Confederate regiment, and at 
the organization of the regiment at Knoxville, in June, 1861, was elected Third 
Lieutenant of the company. At the reorganization, in 1862, he was elected 
Captain of the company. In 1863 he was promoted to Major of the regiment, 
and at the close of Hood's campaign into Tennessee he was made Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. 



AT HOME AGAIN. 67 

one week. Leaving here, our next objective point was War- 
trace, where we remained but one week. As this was not to be 
a resting place for us, we shouldered our knapsacks and guns 
and counted the cross-ties between this place and Shelby ville, 
where we halted but a few days. 

Now getting into the habit of moving like the gypsies, we 
packed and unpacked almost daily. From here we moved to 
Eaglesville, around which place we lay for several days, inspect- 
ing arms, drilling and hunting hickory nuts, of which there 
were plenty. While here, Colonel Walker came to us, having 
been gone ever since our return from Vicksburg. We were all 
glad to see him, and the boys gathered around him and shook 
his hand, giving him three hearty cheers as a warm welcome. 
Leaving here, we moved nearer Murfreesboro, which now 
seemed to be the center of attraction for both armies. Here 
our regiment was placed in a new brigade and a new division. 
We were put in Brigadier-General Stewart's brigade, Cheat- 
ham's division and General Polk's corps. 

General Polk's corps was as follows: 

CORPS. 

Lieutenant-General L. Polk. 

DIVISION. 

Major-General B. F. Cheatham. 

BRIGADES. 

Donelson's, Maney's, Stewart's, Smith's. 
Stewart's brigade. 
Fourth and Fifth Tennessee, Col. 0. F. Strahl. 
Nineteenth Tennessee, Col. F. M. Walker. 
Twenty-Fourth Tennesssee, Col. J. A. Wilson. 
Thirty-First Tennessee, Col. E. E. Tansil. 
Thirty-Third Tennessee, Col. W. J. Jones. 
Stafford's Battery. 

The Federal General, Rosecrans, who was now at Nash- 
ville seemed to be making Murfreesboro the focus of his vision. 
Like two angry clouds approaching each other to meet in a ter- 
rific storm these two mighty forces, Bragg's and Rosecrans's 
were about to meet in clash of arms. 

Gen. Rosecrans left Nashville December 27th, with about 
65,000 men and approached Murfreesboro in three columns, and 



68 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

on three different roads, as rapidly as the roads and circum- 
stances would allow, in order to reach Stone river and form 
his lines before Bragg, with his 40,000 men could get ready for 
an attack. But being met at every turn of the road by the 
Confederate cavalry, he did not reach the battlefield until the 
evening of the 30th, where he found Bragg seated amid the 
cedars and rocks some two and a half miles west of Murfrees- 
boro, awaiting him. 

THE BATTLEFIELD. 

The battlefield lies between Stone river on the east, Overall 
creek on the west and the Franklin or Triune pike on the south, 
while the river and creek formed the northern boundary. 

The river in front of Murfreesboro ran due north for a short 
distance, then its course was northwest. The ground within 
this boundary is very broken with large bowlders and ledges of 
rocks projecting three or four feet in some places, while thick 
clusters of shaggy cedars covered the whole ground, except 
where the absence of rock admitted of a clearing. Running 
across this battlefield were several pikes and dirt roads leading 
into town. 

Rosecrans formed his lines with his right wing, under Mc- 
Cook, resting on the Triune pike near Overall creek and run- 
ning north-east to the Wilkerson pike, there joining Thomas, 
who formed and held the center and whose line extended on to 
the Nashville pike. Crittenden occupied the left and extended 
down the river. 

Bragg formed his line with McCown's and Cleburn's divis- 
ions of Hardee's corps on our left, with Polk's corps forming 
the center and extending to the river. Breckenridge crossed 
the river and formed on the north bank. Cheathan formed his 
line just in the rear of Cleburn,s and Wither's divisions. Our 
line ran principally through the cedars and rocks, and this cold 
winter evening, when all nature -presented a dreary outlook, 
these thick cedars and bowlders seemed to cast a double mantle 
of dreariness over every thing. Yet on this Tuesday evening of 
December the 30th, when the two lines of battle lay in waiting 
for each other, there occurred an incident in which both armies 
took a part, and which is not often recorded in the history of 
battles. With us both armies spoke the same language, learned 
the same tunes and played the same airs. The officers of each 
army were graduates from the same school, and many of them 



HOME REFLECTIONS. 69 

were schoolmates. It was like diamond cut diamond. The 
night before the battle, after the bads had finished their usual 
evening serenade, after the sounds of the last piece were 
dying away in the distance, a Federal band struck up slow and 
softly. 

"home, sweet home." 

Out in the darkness of this cold December night, amidst the 
dense cedars and rough bowlders along the banks of Stone 
river, 

"Whose sad, slow stream, its noisless flood 

Poured o'er the glancing pebbles 
All silent now, the Federals stood, 

All silent stood the Rebels. 
No heart or soul had heard unmoved 

That plaintive note's appealing, 
So sweetly, 'Home, Sweet Home' but stirred 

The hidden fount of feeling." 

Reader, I tell you this was a soul-stirring piece. During 
the stillness of the night, each soldier of both armies, was hold- 
ing communion with his own soul, his mind occupied with the 
thought of what to-morrow would bring, whether wounds or 
death, and would he ever see home again, when the notes of 
this inspiring tune came floating on the stillness of the night. 
Immediately a Confederate band caught up the strain, then 
one after another until all the bands of each army were playing 
"Home, Sweet Home." And after our bands had ceased play- 
ing, we could hear the sweet refrain as it died away on the cool, 
frosty air on the Federal side. What a thrill of memories was 
brought to the minds of all that night. 

Who knows what a stimulus this "Home, Sweet Home" gave 
each one the next morning in battle. And as the minnie balls 
and grape sounded the early reveille next morning, each thought 
it was for home and country. 

During the night of the 30th, Gen. Crittenden crossed a 
part of Wood's division to the north bank of the river, under 
the impression that Bragg had withdrawn his men from that 
side. But after crossing he found too many Confederates to 
rest comfortably, so he withdrew under cover of night and 
bivouaced with the other part of his division. 

Earley Wednesday morning, about seven o'clock, Hardee 
with McCown's division, closely followed by Cleburne, opened 
the attack. Bursting through the thick cedars they fell upon 



BATTLE OF MUKFKEESBORO. 71 

Johnson and Davis of McCook's corps, like an avalanche, 
before they were aware of his coming, while the invincible 
Cheatham moved forward upon McCook's center, and drove 
him from his stronghold and first position. The Federals had 
a battery concealed behind a cluster of cedars on a dirt road 
running between the pikes which raked our line but failed to 
check our advance. Our regiment had advanced to a tempo- 
rary breastwork of loose stones made by the enemy during the 
night before, and halted for a few minutes, when a shell from 
this concealed battery struck the rock wall, bursting, killed one 
and wounded six others of Company I, of the Old Nineteenth 
Tennessee. From this position, our whole line again moved for- 
ward to the enemy's second line where the two armies came 
hand to hand in a musket fire that was destructive to friend 
and foe alike. The enemy strengthened their line here by re- 
inforcement, but they could not withstand the impetuous rush of 
Hardee and Cheatham, who broke their lines again, killed their 
artillery horses and captured three pieces of artillery which fell 
into the hands of the Nineteenth Tennessee regiment. These 
pieces of artillery were supposed to have been the concealed 
battery from which came the fatal shot to Company I at the 
rock wall. In this charge the color-bearer was shot down, and 
as the colors were falling Corporal Mason, of the color guard, 
seized them and bore them aloft as a beacon for the regiment 
through the storm of battle. Mason was of Company K, a 
brave, daring fellow, who never let the colors lag. 

The Federal General Post made a desperate attempt to turn 
our advance, for a while held us in check, but, his men falling 
all around him, his gunners dead, his horses killed and guns 
silenced, was forced back to a line of fences where was estab- 
lished one of their field hospitals which was soon in our posses- 
sion. Gaining this point Hardee's and part of Polk's lines 
faced due north, having swung around on a pivot, resting near 
the Nashville pike, forming a right angle with their first line in 
the morning. After driving Rosecrans' right around, Polk's 
whole command moved against Sherman. Here Cheatham's 
division again bravely faced a shower of shot shrapnel that 
thinned his ranks fearfully, but he drove Sherman back and 
took possession of his line, and finding himself exposed to a 
hotter and a more deadly fire, fell back. In this charge the Old 
Nineteenth lost some of her best men. Here Major Jarnagin, 
Capt. J. G. Frazier, Lieutenant Abernathy and many others 



72 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

were killed. Major Jarnagin served the first year as a private, 
was faithful, always ready where and whenever duty called. 
At the reorganization at Corinth, R. J. Jarnagin was made 
Major of the regiment, was a noble officer, a brave soldier, 
although small in stature was every inch a man. The regiment 
sustained a loss in the death of Major Jarnagin that would be 
hard to fill; was liked by all, kind and generous. Here Lieuten- 
ant Sims caught it again, a ball hit the top of his head knock- 
ing him down but was not dangerously wounded. Many others 
were killed and wounded in this battle. A part of Wither' s 
division came to our assistance and we held our position. 

Here Col. Loomis of Wither 's division was so badly hurt 
by the falling of a limb cut by a shell that he had to be carried 
from the field. Shot and shell were flying thick and fast, the 
artillery fire very heavy. The Federal General Sill, in a wild 
and excited attempt to drive Cheatham back, fell in his heroic 
charge near our regiment, killed. The battle waxed hotter and 
in the center the struggle was most stubborn. On our left Mc- 
Cown and Cleburne again pressed McCook and threatened Thom- 
as's rear causing him to fall back, and in doing so an Indiana 
regiment in crossing a small clearing was almost annihilated, 
judging from the number of men left in the clearing. Night 
came and put an end to the first day's fight. In the fight to-day 
the Old Nineteenth suffered more than any other regiment in 
the brigade, her loss being double that of any other. In one 
of the engagements the regiment halted in the edge of a cedar 
bottom, Orderly Sergeant Joseph Thompson, of Company I, 
ran forward far out in the clearing and captured a prisoner. As 
he was returning with him, the prisoner was killed by a piece 
of shell, Thompson returned and captured another and brought 
him out safely. During the entire day's struggle the banner of 
the Old Nineteenth could be seen fluttering in the breeze in the 
fiercest of the battle and the hardest of the strife. To-day 
many of the noble old regiment gave their lives as a sacrifice 
to the God of War. During the day Bragg drove the enemy 
from nearly every position he held, captured thirty-one pieces 
of artillery and four thousand prisoners, including two Briga- 
dier Generals, and two hundred wagons and teams. For three 
miles or nearly, now in our rear amidst the thick cedars and 
bowlders, beginning with their first line in the morning, their 
dead, , wounded, their field hospitals, guns, knapsacks, broken 



BATTLE OF MURFREESBORO. 73 

ambulances showed clearly the victorious advance of our men, 
who bivouaced, within a quarter of a mile of the railroad, be- 
hind which embankment the enemy took shelter. As the old 
year was dying, she passed away amidst the roar of cannon and 
the clash of arms, that shook the very foundation upon which 
the city of Murfreesboro stood. The night that followed was 
lonely and dark, and there were no flickering camp fires to be 
seen, although the night was damp and chilly. There wasbut little 
moving of troops and what there was, was done in silence. The 
old iron-mouth cannon seemed to be asleep, for silence reigned 
supreme. We lay all night with a feeling of loneliness as if all 
were dead but ourselves, knowing that although the cedars and 
rocks were lying thousands of friends and foes alike unconcious 
in that sleep from which the morning reveillee will not awake 
them. There were many wounded too who had not been cared 
for, suffering not only from wounds but from cold. Oh! The 
deep, anxious reverie of the soul in such an hour as this, none 
but those who have gone through it can tell. The grey dawn 
of another day and of another new year as well, was welcomed 
indeed, as it came creeping slowly upon us like the vanguard 
of a mighty army on its foe. It was relief. It came not to 
arouse us from slumber for we supposed but few closed their 
eyes in sleep that night. But it lifted the deep dread that had 
settled like a pall over the soul. 

The morning found our lines pretty much the same they 
were the evening before. Rosecrans had improved his, had 
dropped back from "Round Forest," a point on his line be- 
tween the railroad and the river, he had occupied the evening 
before a hill farther back and also down the river. The next 
day the enemy maneuvered his troops considerably. He 
crossed the river with one or two divisions of Crittenden's 
corps, and a battery of twelve guns, to the north side and in 
front of Breckenridge, Hardee still held the left. Hardee, the 
day before, had some of Breckenridge 's men and he had sent 
them around to him early in the morning. Polk still in the cen- 
ter gazing at the iron-crested hill in front of him whose fifty 
mounted "War Dogs" stood ready to be turned loose on him at 
the first move he made. 

As old "Sol" continued driving his fiery chariot up the 
eastern horizon, the armies still remained silent, looking at 
each other like two mastiffs after a hard tussle, debating whether 



74 



THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 



to open again the battle or not. The afternoon passed with 
little more than skirmishing- between the pickets, and the dark- 
ness of another night settled everything into a quiet sleep. 
The next morning, the third day, all was activity and life. 
There were moving of troops and artillery. About the mid- 
dle of the evening Breckenridge charged Beatty in front of him, 
driving them from their position and across the river. Here the 
fifty guns massed on the hill opened upon him a perfect tor- 
nado of iron hail that literally cut down his men like grass. In 
this charge General Hanson was killed and General Adams was 
wounded. The fight was short, but Breckenridge loosing so 
many of his men from the battary across the river he fell back. 
This ended the battle of Murfreesboro. Hardee and Polk, 
siuce the morning of the second day, had gained no new posi- 
tion. During the second and third day Bragg was busy in getting 
the spoils from the field and in caring for the dead and wounded. 
Bragg' s loss in this battle in killed, wounded and captured, was 
14,560. Rosecrans' loss was 11,578. Bragg abandoned Mur- 
freesburo Saturday night by sending off the infantry but leav- 
ing the cavalry to occupy the town until Monday morning Jan. 
5th, 1863. 

Our loss in this engagement was very heavy in killed and 
wounded. We were not very successful in getting the names 
of our regiment who suffered. There were always difficulties in 
the way, having too much to do and could not get the reports. 
Our regiment had 38 killed and 111 wounded. The captured we 
did not learn. 



KILLED. 



JAKNAGIN, 

Burkheart, William Co. A 

Childress, D. M 

Curran, O. S 

McGhee, J. M 

Brown, Corp. Clebe " B 

Foster, Samuel 

Aikin, S. B 

Gaby, Cris 

Roller, George 

Erps, Adrin 

Gaby, John 

Keller, Geo. W 



MAJ. K. A. 

Elllison, A. J Co 

Skelton, H. H 

McKissack, J. R 

Williams, P. A 

Hamilton, S. Rhea 

Tipton, J. A 

Bowles, D. R 

Barger, J. R 

Wayler, Jackson 

Kincaid, Pat 

Smith, Thomas 

Stansbery, Y. A 



F 



G 



H 



BATTLE OF MURFREESBORO. 



75 



Easterly, Jno. L Co. C 

Frazier, Capt. J. S " D 

Rhea, William 

Abernathy, Lieut. S. B. " E 

Earnest, Ed " " 

Swan, J. H 

Sloan, J. H. . 



Archer, Wm. A Co. H 



The one at rock wall 

Marshall, E. W 

Wax. William 

Miller, Charles 

Fudge, Charles 

Co. E. 



WOUNDED. 



Hutson, Andy Co. B 



Smith, John 

Burnett, Frank 

Holly, William 

Colville, E. W 

Brataber, John 

Carson, Samuel 

Loftis, D. W 

McClarin, Jasper. . . . 

Mitchell, John 

Kincaid, Creed 

Sims, Lieut. J. M. . 

Rhea, Wm. R 

Ford, Martin 

Roller, David 



C 



D 



E 

F 

a 



i 

K 



Russell, W. R Co. G 

Ford, Alfred 

Horn, Simeon 

Hilton, James 

Cresswell, Van 

Hale, Elija 

Strange, James 

Basket, John 

Grogan, Washington. 
Alexander, Thomas . . . 
Six wounded at wall . . 
Huffmaster, Capt J. H 
Miller, Lieut. W. B... 

Jackson, E. H 

Carmack, John 



G 



II 



CHAPTER X. 

AFTER Bragg had removed all the wounded that could be 
moved, all the spoils and army stores, he moved out from 
Murfreesboro. Gen. Polk went out on the Shelby ville 
pike, Hardee on the Manchester pike and Breckenridge fur- 
ther on to our right in the direction of Tullahoma. On this 
chain of ridges Bragg formed his line of defense, aDd where 
we remained all winter. But little was done other than drill 
and picket duty. After we had settled down in camp changes 
were made in the officers of the regiment. January the sixth, 
First Lieutenant, J. C. Hammer, Co. B, resigned, and Second 
Lieutenant, R. J. Tipton was made first lieutenant; Third 
Lieutenant, T. M. Brabson was made second lieutenant, and 
A. C. Smith made third lieutenant. In Co. D, First Lieut- 
enant, S. J. A. Frazier was made captain in place of J. G. Fra- 
zier, killed at Murfreesboro. In Co. E, Second Lieutenant, 
H. A. Waller was made first lieutenant in place of Lieutenant 
S. B. Abernathy, killed, and Jake L. Waller was made second 
lieutenant. For a short time our encampment was below and 
across Duck river from Shelby ville. From this place we mov- 
ed nearer to Eagleville where we had encamped once before, 
remaining but a short time, we moved to the pike about nine 
miles from Shelby ville. Soon after coming to this encamp 
ment, Brig. Glen. A. P. Stewart was taken from the command 
of our brigade and put in command of General McCown's div- 
ision. 

Col. O. F. Strahl was given command of the brigade ; the 
following order explains the change : 

Special Order ) Headquaktees Army Tennessee, 

No. 52. j Tullahoma, Tenn., Feb. 27, 1863. 

4th. Maj. Gen. J. P. McCown, provisional army, is placed 
in arrest and charges preferred against him and he will proceed 
to Chattanooga and await orders. 5th. Brig. Gen. A. P. 



CHANGES IN OFFICERS. 77 

Stewart, provisional army, is assigned to the command of the 
division of which Maj. General McCown is relieved, and will 
constitute a part of Lieut. General Polk's corps. 
By command of General Bragg. 

KlNLOCH FALKNER, 

Ass't Adj'tGen. 

Captain W. C. Harvey of Co. C, resigned and Second 
Lieutenant A. W. Smith was made captain. Lieut. Smith was 
promoted over M. J. Miles, first lieutenant, and the Third 
Lieut. Miles was made second lieutenant, and D. W. Gammon 
was made third lieutenant. 

April 5th, Captain C. W. Heiskell, of Co. K, was promoted 
to Major of the regiment, in the place of R. A. Jarnagin killed. 
First Lieut. J. H. Huffmaster was made captain; W. W. Etter 
went up to first lieutenant; W. B. Miller was made second lieu- 
tenant, and C. C. Spears was made third lieutenant. 

J. K. P. Gammon, second lieutenant of Co. G, was elected 
Major of the 63rd Tenn. and on May the 2nd left us for his new 
command. Lieut. H. D. Hawk was promoted to second lieu- 
tenant, and J H. Rhea was made third lieutenant. During all 
these months our regiment had not been out of sight of the 
pike but once, and then only for a few days. At this time a 
spirit of revival seemed to spread over our entire division. 
Rev. J. B. McFerrin, of Nashville, preached for us several 
times, for some time now we had scarcely thought of war save 
only when we were at the front on picket duty. Our time had 
been occupied in drilling both in regimental and brigade, in- 
spections, dress parade and our big revivals. 

DEATH SENTENCE OF PEUITT. 

One, Nathaniel Pruitt, of Co. H, was court-martialed for 
desertion and sentenced to be shot. This was the first and last 
death sentence ever passed upon one of the Old Nineteenth. 
June 10th was set for the execution, but through the influence of 
Col. Walker and Maj. Heiskell, Pruitt was reprieved. He was 
brought out from prison to an old field near the command ; his 
coffin placed in front of the open grave and he knelt behind it. 
The guards were drawn up and made ready, when his reprieve 
came and he was released. He deserted the next night, and 
fortunately for him, was never caught. 



78 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

So far, the months had dragged wearily on with but little 
excitement ; some of our regiment died while here, one of spi- 
nal meningitis. 

Martin Conwell of Co. G, and O. M. Humphreys of Co. B; 
J. J.Payne and Felix Lauderback of Co. K, also died. 

While on picket duty Lieut. R. G. Rhea, of Co. F, was 
killed; J. J. Ford, of Co. G, wounded, and Lieut. A. W. Smith 
was captured. 

About June the fifteenth (15th) the Federals began to make 
the front all along the line more lively. They began to press 
our front, and we strengthened our pickets. Videttes became 
more bold, skirmishing more frequent and heavier. The old 
iron-mouth cannon that had been silent so long turned loose 
again to alarm the natives. The evening of the fifteenth our 
regiment was ordered to the front. We moved out as far as the 
Lytle residence on the pike, in whose yard we found the ene- 
my's videttes. Our regiment deployed and moved forward, 
drove the enemy back, and our main skirmish line occupied the 
yard. For awhile it looked like hide and seek. The enemy 
then drove us back some two hundred yards and occupied the 
yard again. It was in one of these skirmish charges that Lieut. 
Robert Rhea was killed. Later in the evening we drove them 
back again and occupied their line, which we held. That night 
the enemy left our front and we saw no more of them. The 
war cloud seemed to be growing darker and more threatening, 
and soon we expected it to break upon us in a perfect storm. 
Cheatham's entire division was ordered to the front, to repair 
at once to Guy's Gap, a point on the pike further up than we 
had yet been, but from some cause this was not put into exe- 
cution. 

Hardee and Stewart were on our right and were being 
engaged with the enemy. Stewart was being pressed. During 
the night of the 26th we received the following order : 

Headquarters Polk's Corps, 

Shelbyville, Tenn., June 26th, 1863. 

Major General Cheatham, Commanding Division : 

General— The Lieutenant-General, commanding, directs that 
you move your divisfon from its present position to Tullahoma 




CAPTAIN S. J. A. FRAZIER. 

Captain Frazier was born in Rhea County, Tenn., in 1840. Graduated 
with tlie degree of M. A., at the Tennessee College in 1859. Joined Company 
D of the Nineteenth Tennesss regiment, and at the organization of the regi- 
ment at Knoxville, was elected third lieutenant of the company. At the?re- 
organization was elected first lieutenant. At the death of Captain J. Gr. Fra- 
zier. lit- was made captain of the company. January the 5th. 1863. At the 
battle of Chickamauga was wounded and captured. 



FALLING BACK. 79 

by the Schoefner and Brownsville road, turning to the right to 
Brownsville. Let the movement be commenced at the earliest 
hour possible to-morrow morning. 

Respectfully, General, 

Your obedient servant, 

Thomas M. Jack, 

Asst. Adjt. Gen. 

Very early next morning, before the break of day, we pulled 
up and left our encampment on the pike, and were in Shelby- 
ville by eight o'clock, hurrying everything that could be gotten 
away. We distributed several hundred rations to the citizens 
and burned everything that could not be gotten away, that 
would be of any benefit to the enemy. Starting out from Shel- 
byville in the hardest kind of rain, we headed for Tullahoma. 
Our march was very slow on account of the rains; wagons, 
both of the commissary and ordnance trains, were continually 
miring up and with great difficulty were gotten along. We 
could not leave them. 

The enemy was pushing for Tullahoma and so was Bragg. 
Cheatham's and Cleburne's divisions, moving on different roads, 
each in a hurry, approached a bridge across a river at the same 
time. Some confusion resulted as to who would cross first. 
Cleburne halted and Cheatham crossed. We reached Tulla- 
homa late in the evening of the 28th, tired and almost worn out. 
Everything had the spirit of move on it but the wagon train. 
The enemv had kept moving; so had we, to keep pace with 
him. They were approaching Tullahoma in force, and from 
indications Bragg intended to give battle. Early Tuesday 
morning troops were seen by the thousands hurrying in all 
directions through and around the town, getting into position 
in the ditches. The fortifications around Tullahoma were not 
completed and a heavy detail was made to finish them. We 
lay all day and night in the ditches and in the mud without shel- 
ter. We had nothing to eat, nor had we all day. The boys began 
to get wrathy and hot, but the rain, which kept falling in con- 
tinuous showers, kept us cool. Generals and men all fared 
alike in these ditches. During one of the hardest rains that 
fell, the writer saw General Cheatham on a stump, sitting as 
complacently as if in the sun, with one shoe off and one of his 
big toes sticking out through a hole in his sock. 



80 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

The enemy presented only a small force in our front, while 
the main force of his army hurried on to our right flank, thus 
forcing Bragg from Tullahoma and disappointing the men of 
the anxiously expected battle, which they were ready and wait- 
ing to give. 

We left the ditches July 1st at daylight in the direction of 
Cowan. The boys were mad and wetter than wet hens. We 
do not know whether their ruffled tempers were due to being 
wet and muddy or to the fact the "Yanks" had fooled them. 
After dark that evening Glen. Polk received the following dis- 
patch from Gen. Mackall, Bragg' s chief of staff: 

Dechakd. July 1st, 1863, 7 p. m. 
General — The enemy have reached your front, close up. 
The question to be decided instantly, shall we fight at the "Elk" 
take position at the foot of the mountain, at Cowan. 

Answer. W. W. Mackall, 

Chief of Staff. 
To which Gen. Polk replied: 

Allisona, July 1st, 8 p. m. 
Gen. Mackall— You ask, "Shall we fight on the 'Elk' or 
take position at the foot of the mountain at Cowan," in reply, 
take position at the foot of the mountain at Cowan. In that 
case I think as much of the wagon train as possible should be 
thrown over the mountain, and a supply of grain ordered up 
by railroad for the animals we must retain on this side. 

Respectfully, 

L. Polk, Lieut. Gen. 

Arriving, Gen. Polk formed line of battle, and all the 
wagon trains were hurried across the mountain, and all the 
troops, except Polk's corps and Wheeler's cavalry. So there 
was no fighting. That Bragg was moving to avoid an engage- 
ment, was very evident. After all the wagon trains, artillery 
and troops had crossed over to the other side of the mountain, 
except Polk's corps and Wheeler's cavalry. Polk's men began 
climbing the mountain's steep and rugged side. Cheatham's 
division was the last to begin the assent and that directly over 
the tunnel. The cavalry still battling iwith the enemy's van- 
guard. After a long and tiresome pull up the mountain, we 
camped on its top near "University Place," July 3rd, Friday 
night. 



PREPARING FOE BATTLE. 81 

Gen. Polk camped with Gen. Cheatham that night near our 
brigade. Since we had left the Shelbyville pike, the enemy 
had kept pressing us hard by day and with but little relenting at 
night, pushing with indomitable energy to either cut Bragg off 
from the river or by pressing him so hard, he would not be able 
to cross all his army and army trains, and thereby captuie a 
part of his army at least. If such was their aim they made a 
complete failure. At eight o'clock that night Gen. Polk re 
ceived the following dispatch from Gen. Wheeler, who was at 
the foot of the mountain, or nearly so: 

Headquarters Cavalry Corps, July the 3rd, 1863. 
E. P. Crossing, near University Place. 
Lieut. Gen. Polk — The enemy are engaging me very 
warmly at this point. Our men are maintaining their ground 
bravely. The enemy have infantry and cavalry and are evi- 
dently reinforcing. Respectfully, 

Joseph Wheeler, 
Major General. 

Leaving our encampment on the top of the mountain early 
next morning, descending the eastern slope of the Cumberland 
we hastened on to the river. All the army that had preceded 
Polk and Wheeler had crossed the river, part on the railroad 
bridge at Bridgeport and part on pontoons at the mouth of 
"Battle Creek" where now is the city of South Pittsburg. We 
crossed on the pontoon. Wither's division after crossing the 
river moved out to Whitesides, Cheatham halted at Shell Mound. 
Cheatham had brought up the rear to the river and there ended 
the pursuit, and the river remained the picket line for some 
time. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ON the seventh day of July, 1863, Gen. Bragg' s tired and 
almost worn out army entered Chattanooga after a long 
and a remarkable march fr-om Middle Tennessee. The 
enemy had pressed us so closely we experienced a feeling of re- 
lief when we put the Tennessee river between us and sat down 
around Chattanooga to enjoy a quiet rest. Cheatham's divis- 
ion left the pike some ten miles out from Shelby ville ; made the 
march through rain and mud, halting and marching, forming 
lines of battle in ditches and out of ditches, pressed day and 
night by a relentless foe; yet we came into Chattanooga with- 
out the loss of a single gun or a pound of quartermaster's or 
commissary stores or a round of ordnance, except what was 
given to citizens at Shelby ville when we were leaving. Although 
there were some wounded and some were taken sick on the 
way, yet our division made the march and went into camp with 
400 more men than we started with. Around Chattanooga we 
had but little to do, except to build fortifications. For one 
week the Old Nineteenth Tennessee camped on the hill above 
and overlooking the boat landing, on a high bluff where we 
threw up fortifications. On the 10th of July, E. P. Nail, Third 
Lieutenant of Company A, resigned and R. P. Jones was made 
Third Lieutenant to fill the vacancy. On the 28th, 0. Engle- 
dow was made Third Lietenant of Company E, in the place of 
J. L. Waller, who had been promoted. J. F. Tatham was made 
Third Lieutenant of Company F in place of R. Rhea, who was 
killed on the Shelby ville pike. 

We have been having a quiet time so far, since we came 
to Chattanooga until now. The enemy having crossed part of 
their army to this side of the river, a few miles below Chatta- 
nooga, and a part came up on the other side opposite the 
city; and the two armies were again confronting each other, 
and picket duty was in demand. Regular details from each reg- 
iment was made every few days for picket duty. August the 



AROUND CHATTANOOGA. 83 

first, a detail was sent out from our regiment under Lieut. R. J. 
Tipton of Company B, who late in the evening, in a spat with 
the enemy, was killed. On the fifteenth of August, Lieut. 
Thomas Cunningham, third lieutenant of Company D, re- 
signed and R. W. Colvill was made third lieutenant to fill his 
place. T. M. Brabson, second lieutenant of Company B, was 
promoted to first lieutenant to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Lieut. Tipton, and A. C. Smith was made second 
lieutenant. The 22nd of August, Lieut. R. W. Colvill was 
promoted to first lieutenant, filling the vacancy made by the 
promotion of S. J. A. Frazier to that of captain. 

The enemy kept steadily encroachiag toward the city from 
below, inch by inch, until he occupied Lookout Valley, and the 
opposite bank of the river in front of Chattanooga. The Rev. 
Dr. Palmer, of New Orleans, was with us and had been for 
some time. He was occupying one of the churches of the 
city on Sunday morning, August 21st, the day appointed for 
humiliaton and prayer by President Davis. The church was 
filled with men, women and soldiers. While Dr. Palmer was at 
pray, the Federals threw a bomb into the city, the shell falling 
and exploding in the street just in front of the church door. 
The Doctor did not stop in his prayer, nor look up, but went 
on as if nothing had happened, although it produced some lit- 
tle rustle of excitement. When he had finished his prayer and 
gotten up, he found but few in the church. Nearly all had 
slipped out quietly and gone home. Only three or four soldiers 
remained, Maj. C. W. Heiskell was one of them. The Federals 
kept shelling the city at intervals all day. One of the first 
shells thrown, exploded wounding a little girl breaking her leg, 
and out of this sad accident came near being a sadder affair in 
our division and in our regiment. 

A CHALLENGE. 

The father of our Lieut. Col. Moore was living in the city 
at the time and had in his house several sick, in fact it was 
full. The wounded little girl was taken to Mr. Moore's home 
but was refused admittance for want of room. Brig. Gen. 
Smith, of Cheatham's division, being present at the time made 
some unkind remarks about Mr. Moore. These remarks reached 
the ear of our Lieutenant-Colonel, and he asked an explana- 
tion of Gen. Smith, concerning the remarks he made about his 
father. To Col. Moore's mind no satisfactory explanation was 



84 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

made, and he challenged Gen. Smith for a duel, which was ac- 
cepted. By an agreement Gen. Smith, Lieut. Col. Moore and 
Maj. C. W. Heiskell met in Col. Moore's tent, where Maj. 
Heiskell poured oil on the troubled waters, and the two brave 
officers separated good friends. It may not be out of place 
just here, to say sadly, we pen the fact, that but a few brief 
days both these brave officers fell in battle, the one, Gen. 
Smith, in the battle of Chickaniauga, the other, Col. Moore, in 
the battle of Mission Ridge. 

The bombardment created considerable excitement in the 
city, and activity in the camp. For several days at intervals 
they continued the shelling. 

On Sept. 2nd our brigade received the following order: 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 1st, 1863. 

Gen. Cheatham— The Lieutenant-General commanding, di- 
rects that you order Strahl 's brigade to take the position now 
occupied by the regiment on out-post duty on the other side of 
Lookout Mountain. This brigade will relieve that portion of 
Smith's brigade on duty beyond the mountain. You will like- 
wise order Smith's brigade to a suitable point on the Rossville 
rode this side of the mountain to guard and picket the same. 
Respectfully, 

Thomas M. Jack, Ass't Adj't Gen. 

Accordingly our brigade moved to the west side and beyond 
Lookout Mountain,' where Wood's division of the enemy was 
posted, and trying cautiously to peep around Lookout. At the 
same time Thomas was moving southward down Lookout Val- 
ley beyond the mountain seeking a place to cross. McCook 
also was moving in the same direction, having crossed the river 
below Bridgeport at Carpenter's ferry, aiming to get in the rear 
of Bragg. Wood kept pressing Lookout point in order to hold 
as much of Bragg's army as possible, and as long as possible 
in Chattanooga. Col. 0. F. Strahl, who had been commanding 
the brigade ever since Brig. Gen. Stewart was taken from us in 
Middle Tennessee, was now made Brigadier General. Gen. 
Strahl sent the following dispatch to Gen. Polk from our posi- 
tion beyond the mountain : 

Lookout Point, Sept. 6th, 1863. 
Lieut. Gen. Polk, Commanding Corps, 

The enemy are just in front of my pickets, send a battery 
immediately if you can. 

O. F. Stkahl, Brig. Gen. 



THE ENEMY CLOSING IN. 00 

This was 0. F. Strahl's first order as a Brigadier General. 
We had now been three days on the west side of Lookout 
Mountain, opposing Wood's division of Crittenden's corps, and 
while they were advancing slowly feeling their way we offered 
but little resistance. In the mean time Bragg had been busy 
moving everything from Chattanooga, and had about gotten 
all away. On the morning of the 5th, the enemy began cross- 
ing the river at Harrison, above Chattanooga, and began to 
gather around Bragg like bees around a gum. For Bragg now 
to leave Chattanooga was one of the inevitables, and to this 
end, Gen. Polk issued the following order to Gen. Cheatham: 

Headquarters Polk's Corps, 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 6th, 1863. 
Maj. Gen. Cheatham, 

General— The Lieutenant General commanding, directs that 
you have your command placed in readiness to move without 
delay, with three days's rations. 

Respectfully, 

Thos. M. Jack, 
Ass't Adj't Gen. 

Bragg left Chattanooga the morning of Sept. 7th, and 
moved out in the direction of Lee and Gordon's mills on the 
Chickamauga, which we passed late in the evening of the same 
day, where we halted for two days. The enemy's cavalry was 
but a short distance from us in McLemore's cove, and were at 
the mills the day before we left Chattanooga. By this time 
Thomas and McCook were on this side of Lookout Mountain 
and perhaps even with Crawfish Springs. Crossing the Chicka- 
mauga, Bragg moved on to Rock Springs where a part of his 
army stopped, and part (Cheatham's division) moved on to 
Lafayette, Ga. The Federal General Crittenden followed us 
closely all the way from Chattanooga to Lee and Gordon's 
mills where he halted, sending only a small force on to keep in 
touch with and watch Bragg' s movements. We lay around 
Lafayette three or four days, during which time Gen. Thomas 
and Gen. McCook had crossed Mission Ridge and moved 
close around Crawfish Springs. Crittenden had now pushed a 
heavy force out in the direction of Pea Vine creek . 

The night of the 11th, Cheathan received orders to be ready, 
with the rest of Polk's corps, to move against this force. 



86 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

Lafayette, Ga., Sept. 12th, 1863, 3 a. m. 
Maj. Gen. Cheatham, 

The Lieut. Gen. commanding, directs that you hold your 
command in readiness to move at daylight. You will move 
light, carrying your ambulances and ordinance trains. 

Respectfully, 
Thomas M. Jack, Ass't Adj't Gen. 

We beat the long roll, and the men were in line by the first 
streak of the gray dawn, the morning of the 12th, feeling as- 
sured something was going to be done. The men were ready 
and waiting in line when the following was received: 

Lafayette, Ga. Sept. 12th, 1863, 9 a. m. 
Maj. Gen. Cheatham, 

The Lieut. Gen. commanding, directs that you at once pro- 
ceed to Rock Spring with your division and take position. 
Respectfully, 

Thomas M. Jack, Ass't Adj't Gen. 

Leaving Lafayette that evening, we took position a short 
distance beyond Rock Spring Church on the Crawfish road. 
Hindman's division was posted on the right of us in the direc- 
tion of Peavine Church, while Walker's division was to the 
right and rear of Hindman, and on to Peavine creek. The next 
day Cheatham moved out to Lee and Gordon's mill, and on 
reaching the top of the ridge overlooking the bottoms fronting 
the mill, our brigade was thrown forward as a skirmish line. 
Maj. C. W. Heiskell was in charge of the Nineteenth regiment 
skirmishers, and so close came the enemy that I we could hear 
them give the command to the cannoneers and then the cannon 
boomed. Nothing however was developed by this move, ex- 
cept a few cannon shots exchanged and some picket firing. We 
returned to Rock Spring where we remained until the 18th of 
September. 




JAMES H. HAVEL Y. 

Sergeant James Havely was born in Lee County, Va., February the 24th, 
1838, and moved to Tennessee when but six years old, where he lived until 
1861, when he joined Company K at Rogersville, Tenn., in April, 1861. In 
June following, Company K was assigned to the Old Nineteenth Confederate 
regiment in its organization at Knoxville. Sergeant Havely was with the reg- 
iment in all her battles, shared in all the hardship- of camp life. He was a 
faithful brave soldier. He surrendered with the regiment near Greensbot'o, 
N. C, in April, 1865. 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE BATTLE OF CHICAMAUGA. 



THERE had been a great deal of maneuvering of troops in 
both armies in the last few days. The demonstration the 
enemy had made south of the Chicamauga was only feel- 
ing for Bragg and to ascertain the trend of his intentions. The 
morning of the 18th Gen. Thomas, who had been at Crawfish 
Springs moved to their extreme left and took position near 
Reed's bridge on the Chicamauga. Crittenden occupied the 
center and McCook the right wing of the line of battle. Rose- 
crans held all the bridges on the Chicamauga the morning of 
the 18th with an advanced line out from the creek to dispute 
the advance of Bragg' s army. Early in the morning of the 18th 
the order of line of battle was read, and the command to ad- 
vance and cross the Chicamauga was given. 

Johnson's division was to advance and cross the Chica- 
mauga at Reed's bridge. He met the enemy near Peavine 
creek, but they fell back, and Johnson reached the bridge with 
but little resistance. Walker was to cross at Alexander's bridge 
and Buckner to cross at Tedford's ford. Polk to cross where- 
ever he could between Lee and Gordon's mills and Tedford's 
ford. Walker met with such strong, opposition that he could 
not cross at Alexander's bridge, but was forced to go down 
the creek to Bryant's ford, a mile or more below, where he suc- 
ceeded in crossing. 

The Old Nineteenth was in Gen. Polk's command which 
was as follows: 

pole's corps. 

divisions. 

Cheatham's — Hindman's. 

cheatham's division. 
Maney's, Smith's, Wright's and Strahl's Brigades. 



88 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

strahl's BRIGADE. 
Fourth and Fifth Tennessee, Col. J. J. Lamb. 
Nineteenth Tennessee, Col. F. M. Walker. 
Twenty-fourth Tennessee, Col. J. A. Wilson. 
Thirty-first Tennessee, Col. E. E. Tansil. 
Thirty-third Tennessee, Col. W. J. Jones. 
Stafford's Battery. 

During the night of the 18th Bragg crossed the Chica- 
mauga with his veteran army and formed his lines, with Rose- 
crans in his front and the bounding, turbulent Chicamauga, 
with but few places to cross, at his back. All had crossed but 
Cheatham's division which had remained on the south or east 
side of the creek until the next morning. While we had not 
marched very far, yet we were without rations, depending upon 
our supply train which had not come up. The general surface 
of the battlefield was rough and heavily timbered, and the two 
armies lay that night in closer proximity than each perhaps 
thought. Rosecrans had all the advantage as to position, as he 
picked his own ground, giving Bragg only room enough to form 
his lines between him and the creek, over which he could not 
have recrossed, without great danger of capture had he been 
defeated. While Rosecrans had all the roads open and free in 
his rear. The numerical strength of each army was, Rose- 
crans about sixty-five thousand (65,000), and Bragg about sixty 
thousand, (60,000.) Saturday morning came bright and clear, 
and the glittering bayonets on the rebel guns reflected in the 
sunlight, presaged no retreat, victory or death. Cheatham's 
division left its bivouac early Saturday morning, and crossed 
the Chicamauga at Hunt's bridge, a rude construction for farm 
use, about one mile below Lee and Gordon's mill, moved rap- 
idly to the front, to our right, where from Walker's guns, the red 
tide of battle began and rolled down the line to our left, while the 
roar of musketry broken only by the loud peals from the iron- 
mouth cannon, showed clearly the battle had opened in earn- 
est. We double-quicked through the woods and over rough 
ground which threw our regiment out of line. Having nearly 
reached the line then engaged directly in our front, we halted 
but for a moment to straighten our lines, when Gen. Cheatham 
came riding rapidly down in front of our line, saying, "Give 
them hell, boys, give them hell;" he was not out of sight, and 
scarcely out of hearing when Gen. Polk came in full tilt on his 



BATTLE OF CHICAMAUGA. 89 

heels and said "Give them what Cheatham says, we will pay 
off old chores to-day." 

Notwithstanding the tnnmlt and uproar of battle, and burst- 
ing of shells around us there went up a "Rebel Yell" that vied 
with the roar of battle. 

Just as Gen. Polk passed our regiment, two of Company A, 
who were standing at the head of the regiment leaning against 
a blackjack, one on each side of the tree, a capped shell came 
crashing through the woods, struck this tree and burst, wound- 
ing the two men so they had to go to the rear, this ended their 
part of the fight for the day. We could have put our hand on 
the shoulder of one of the men, but was not hurt. 

As we went into the battle we met, seemingly, more men 
coming out wounded than were of us going in, some were be- 
ing carried and some were able to walk. The sight was any- 
thing else than inspiring and encouraging. Whatever thoughts 
or feeling of fear, were passing through the minds of the brave 
boys, were soon dispelled, for we moved at once into the thick- 
est of the fight. No one knew what havoc was being made, save 
only immediately around him. Cheatham had been ordered to 
the assistance of Gen. Walker who had opened the battle and 
had been engaged some time against a stubborn force, from 
whom he had captured three pieces of Scribner's battery, and 
was, when Cheatham arrived being driven back, assaulted in 
front and on both flanks. When Cheatham struck the advanc- 
ing enemy he not only checked his advance, but drove him 
back to a small clearing only a few rods wide, one side of which 
was a thick undergrowth. Over this spot of ground both 
armies had been driven and each had left their dead and 
wounded to mark the 

ILL-FATED SPOT 

where. the Old Nineteenth lost most of her men that day. Here 
Capt. Wm. Lackey of Company E, fell, a minnie-ball passing 
through his hat-band in front, comiug out beneath the hat be- 
hind. This spot of ground was strewed with dead who wore 
the "Blue," and who wore the "Gray." Here Ben C. Looney 
of Company K, a brave, good soldier, fell. From this fearful 
fire of the enemy, Strahl's brigade recoiled but for a moment, 
yet in range of the enemy's fire just sufficient to rally from the 
shock, which was especially deadly to the Old Nineteenth, who 



BATTLE OF CHICAMAUGA. 91 

seemed to have suffered most. From this point, Cheatham or- 
dered our brigade to the support of Gen. Smith, but a few hun- 
dred" yards from where we were and soon we were at it again. 
From some cause a gap in our line had been made to our right 
and the enemy began filing through, flanking us, when our 
brigade was ordered to drive back this column and fill the gap. 
The Old Nineteenth occupied the extreme right of our brigade, 
and as we moved our regiment got the full benefit of both the 
flanking column and the one in our front. 

THE ENEMY 




4th and 5th. 31st and 33d. 24th and 19th. 
stkahl's BRIGADE. 

We had to fall back some fifty or a hundred yards to head 
off this flanking column. Our brigade at this point lost in 
killed and wounded about two hundred men, of which number 
the Old Nineteenth lost more than any other regiment in the 
brigade. Here Maj. C. W. Heiskell was wounded. We were 
re-inforced by Maney's brigade, drove the enemy back, and 
filled the gap. The 19th, 31st and 33rd Tennessee regi- 
ments were thrown forward in advance of the main line and 
held it under a most galling fire. den. Wright, who was on 
our right, had been under fire for two long hours of hard fight- 
ing when the enemy re-inforced his front, and would have 
forced him back, but for the timely arrival of Cleburne, who 
also saved us, who then with Cheatham fought Johnson and 
Baird like tigers, capturing some artillery, guns, colors and 
several hundred prisoners. The fighting was sanguine and des- 
perate. We drove the enemy back towards the road leading 
to Chattanooga. In this charge of Cheatham, Brig. Gen. Smith 
was killed, falling at the head of the regiment he commanded so 
long as colonel and was then commanding as general. He was 
soon followed by two of his staff. This was the last charge of 
Cheatham for this day. We bivouaced in line of battle that 
night. It wa? after dark when Gen. Longstreet's men, or the 
greater part of them came on the field. As soon as he formed his 
lines in the dark he attacked the enemy on our left and for one 
hour the roar of battle was heavy. The firing ceased about 
nine o'clock when silence quietly rested upon the two 



92 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

armies for the night. The firing had been kept up so constantly 
all day long, and until a late hour of night, that the air was 
almost stifling from the smoke of battle. We had not gained 
much ground, but our whole line was encamped on the ground 
occupied .by the enemy the morning before. 

Each army during the day had been driven back and forth 
over the same field repeatedly. Through the night we lay qui- 
etly, resting, and some sleeping and naught could be heard but 
the low, pitiful moan of the suffering, some calling for water 
some for help, but neither could be had. None dare venture 
lest he too would fall and perhaps lower than those whom he 
would help. The stars came out, the immortelles of hope, and 
the moon with pitying eye looked down through the dense 
smoke and foliage, upon the thousands of pale faces silent in 
death. 

"While the wind passed o'er with a dirge and a wail, 
Where the young and the brave were lying." 

In today's fighting Thomas Wright was wounded three 
times, once in the right side and twice in the breast. He was 
left on the field the first day as dead, where he lay until nine 
o'clock Monday morning without any attention, when he was 
picked up and taken to the hospital. There was little sleep on 
the field of carnage that night, and perhaps less in hundreds of 
homes in the south, where mothers, sisters and wives were pray- 
ing for their dear ones, many of whom that same hour were 
lying upon the battle field of Chicamauga in that sleep that 
knows no waking. Nearly all night long, in front of where we 
were, could be heard the axes of the enemy busily preparing for 
the coming day's struggle. Our boys were silent and thought 
ful, ready to take whatever the "fates" decreed. The next 
morning a dense fog from the Chicamauga mingled with the 
smoke of Saturday's battle, covered all the valley. Through 
this fog and smoke, the sun veiling his face, looked as if made 
of blood, thus presaging another baptism of fire that was too dye 
the field of battle a deeper crimson. Somehow it seemed to 
have infused new life into our men, for after the sleeplessness 
and silence of the night came life and activity. The lines of 
both armies had been shortened during the night and the boys 
were ready and waiting for the coming struggle, which was soon 
to awake the echoes from hill to hill, and carry with it hundreds 
more of noble and brave men into death's spacious maw. Or- 
ders had been given to open the battle at the break of day, but 



A DEATH STRUGGLE. 93 

from some cause it was eight or nine o'clock before the first 
sound of conflict was heard rolling down the line from right to 
left as it did the morning before. Gen. Polk opened the attack 
this morning with intense fury. The enemy had prepared breast- 
works, behind which they intended to fight that day, but our 
men charged them with desperate determination and took them. 
The boys looked with indifference upon whatever the enemy had 
made for their protection, not intending to fight behind works 
they did not make any, and whatever the enemy took shelter 
behind, our boys intended to drive them from it. The fighting 
this morning was 

A DEATH STRUGGLE. 

The tug of war was between two brave armies, and the 
bravery of such men, the determination to win or die, banished 
all fear. All along the line our men pressed forward, yielding 
no ground. So desperate was the conflict in several places that 
hand to hand fight was waged and a clash of bayonets was 
heard. 

Gen. Hood made a desperate charge on the enemy's 
lines near the Broth erton House, where he received a severe 
wound in the leg which necessitated the amputation of the 
limb. He had succeeded in breaking the ememy's line and 
forcing their right back on to the Crawfish Springs road below 
the widow Glenn's, when Longstreet drove them around like a 
barn door, while all along great chasms were being made in 
his lines. 

So dreadful now was the storm of battle, and the deadly 
fire of the Confederate guns, who surged forward like an ocean 
of fire, that the right wing of the enemy could not stand it. 
Hindman's division swung around on the spur of Mission 
ridge, where he had men killed by being pierced with the bay- 
onet, where he captured about twelve hundred (1200) prisoners. 

Bragg kept pressing the right of Rosecrans until he fled 
from the field in confusion seeking safety within the limits of 
Chattanooga. Here Gen. Garfield came very near being cap- 
tured, in the confusion that now reigned. He must have gotten 
lost and in one wild desperate ride, in front of our lines and a 
battery he rode for life and safety. 

The left wing of Rosecrans's army was more stubborn, 
Thomas had been driven back to an elevation near the Snod- 
grass residence, who having such a strong position held his 



!)4 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

ground against repeated attempts of Bragg to dislodge him, 
until nightfall when he abandoned the field, leaving the battle- 
field of Chicamauga in our hands with all its dead and 
wounded, Thus ended one of the greatest battles of the war 
and of the world's history of battles. The casualties of mod- 
ern warfare of Europe has but one parallel, that of Waterloo. 

Of the two great armies here engaged, Rosecrans and Bragg 
lost about one third of their men,. (33}i per cent.) The Old 
Nineteenth lost about forty per cent (40 per cent) of her men. 

Maj. Gen. Hood lost a leg, Maj. Gen. Hindman slightly 
wounded, Brig. Gen'ls Helm, Smith and Deshler were killed, 
Brig. Gen'ls Adams, Gregg and McNairy were badly wounded. 

Upon the sanguine fields of Virginia more men had been 
marshalled in one army, but the armies did not suffer that fear- 
ful rate of loss as did the two armies in the battle of Chica- 
mauga. We can give only a partial list of our loss in the Old 
Nineteenth Tennessee. 

KILLED. 

Jolley, W. F Co. D Hawlev Martin Co. G 

Lackey, Capt. Wm.W. " E Cook, William " H 

Traynor, Mike " " Looney, Benj. " K 

Suan, Wm " — Stover, Jake " " 

McAndry, J. W., Co. K. 

WOUNDED. 

Heiskell, Maj. C. W Tresby, John Co. D 

Wright, Thomas Co. - Rhea, Lieut, J. H " G 

McPherson, Frank " C Blair, Capt. R. L " " 

Barnett, J. W " D Hawk, Lieut. H. D. .. . " " 

Frazier, Capt. S. J. A. . " " Grisham, James " H 

Brataber, John " " Sims, Lieut. J. M " F 

Delones, Wm " " Carmack, John " K 

Kelley, W. A " " Johnson, Andy G " " 

Mitchell, John " " Parrott, Dan " — 

Renfro, James, Co. D. 

CAPTURED. 

Holly, Bill Co. C Cooper, John Co. C 

Frazier, Clark " G Frazier, Capt, S. J. A.. " D 




LIEUTENANT WILLIAM W. ETTER 

Lieutenant William Etter was born at Mooresburg, Tenn. , August 10th, 

1838. He enlisted as a private in Company K, Nineteenth Tennessee Con- 
federate regiment, May, 1861. He was once wounded in the Georgia cam- 
paign. Lieutenant Etter made a brave soldier, faithful to duty and always at 
his post. He died January the 5th, 181)8, at Palarm, Arkansas. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



CHATTANOOGA. 



AFTER the battle of Chicamauga, Rosecrans hastened to 
Chattanooga and began preparations for the evacuation 
of the city, fully expecting Bragg to thrust his iron col- 
umn of rebels into the city and take it. 

Rosecrans, in his hurry to be gone, left his dead and 
wounded on the field. Bragg cared for them, burying the dead 
and taking the wounded to the hospital; did not press the pur- 
suit but allowed Rosecrans to rally his men and form a line of 
defence around Chattanooga. If Bragg had pushed on his 
forces immediately he could have captured Rosecrans' entire 
army, but it seems that at the very crowning moment of suc- 
cess, some unseen or mystic influence controls the situation, 
and often the goal of our ambition is lost forever. Such was 
the case here. 

While Rosecrans no doubt keenly felt his defeat in the bat- 
tle of Chicamauga, he rejoiced in that he gave Bragg only a 
chance to peep into Chattanooga from the top of Mission ridge 
and top of Lookout Mountain. For days our men were busy 
burying the dead, caring for the wounded that remained on the 
field and gathering up the guns, blankets, swords, broken cais- 
sons and broken ambulances. Dead men and dead horses lay 
thick all over the field. It would be useless to attempt a dis- 
cription of the scene of suffering. The crazed condition of those 
poor fellows, many whose brains had been plowed by the dead- 
ly bullet, both Federal and Confederate, yet living, but unable 
to tell of their suffering was a pitiable spectacle indeed. Others 
we saw dying, rejoicing in the hope of a glorious immortality. 
One happy christian we saw as we passed lying on the ground 
with a rock for a pillow, so badly wounded that the surgeons 
had passed him by, as being beyond any possible hope of bene- 
fit, dying; exhorting every one around, and all whose eye he 
would catch to become christians. He would put the pertinent 



96 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

questions: "Are you a christian? Do you love Jesus?" We 
could go on and mention other scenes of similar character, but 
we must desist. 

Bragg and Rosecrans settled down to work with pick and 
spade, directly under each others' guns with all their mihgt as if 
preparing a grave each one for the other. Bragg kept pushing 
the enemy's lines in on the city until he held the river from 
Lookout Point to about half way to the city and from Sherman 
Heights to the river above. For days the videttes of each army 
stood in two hundred yards of and gazed at each other like 
grim monsters. The valley out and around Chattanooga was 
literally blockaded with breast works and plowed up with rifle 
pits. The crest of Mission Ridge, its base and sides were fur- 
rowed with rifle pits and covered with cannon. Every now and 
then from the summit of Lookout Mountain were sent savage, 
hissing shells which would fall and burst in the camp of the en- 
emy. For days the pickets of each army sat in their "Gopher 
Pits" cracking jokes with each other, while from the top of 
Mission Ridge and the rocky peak of Lookout went shrieking 
messengers of death over their heads unnoticed and uncared 
for by them, and the signal flags from the mountain tops talk 
with each other in their silent way over the enemy's camp. 

A STRANGE SCENE. 

A peculiar scene is here presented in the two encampments 
of supposed hostile foes; both armies were under the range 
of a single shot; the bands of each played for the entertainment 
of the other; while the sweet notes of "Dixie" were wafted to- 
wards the city over the encampment of the enemy, they were 
met by those of "Yankee Doodle" coming over to us. Another 
uncommon feature of these two encampments was while the en- 
emy could plainly see the men and officers moving around 
Bragg' s headquarters, we in turn from the top of Lookout and 
the ridge with glasses could see what the Yankees had for din- 
ner. 

While here Bragg had detailed a special secret scout, for 
what purpose or whither they went, no one but the detail knew. 
This secret scout or detail was told it had a hazardous underta- 
king. It was a volunteer detail ; there was one from each com- 
pany of the Old Nineteenth, and those of our regiment had to" 
report to Lieut. A. C. Smith, of Co. B. We can recall but the 
names of Lieut. Smith, Co. B, Jack Lackey, of Co. E, Harrison 



A STKANGE SCENE. 97 

Chase, of Co. G, C. C. Moore, of Co. H, Jake Williford, of Co. 
K, and John Field, of Co. C. Harrison Chase was captured 
and died in camp Chase. About one-fourth of this detail never 
returned, nor did we ever hear any report from them. 

Thursday night, October 22nd, our division (Cheatham's) 
was ordered to Tyners, a station on the E. T. V. & G. Ry. We 
moved out in one of the hardest rains (which we always did) of 
the season, feeling- our way through the gloom and darkness of 
the night that seemed almost impenetrable. Over the rough 
ridges, through the dark and muddy hollows we went, and 
reached the station cold and wet and took the cars for Knox- 
ville. There were three trains of cars for us ready and waiting. 
Our brigade took the middle section, and moved out without a 
hitch or jar, until somewhere about Cleveland two cars of the 
front section broke loose, started back and met our section on a 
curve. The engine of our section struck the runaway cars and 
split one of them open. The sudden jar, when it struck, knocked 
off a good many men on our section, and who in turn hallowed 
to the rest on the train to jump that the rear section was right- 
on us. And such another jumping out of and from the top of 
the cars, the writer one of them. No one seemed to be hurt 
except from jumping. The writer falling on his back instead 
of his feet was hurt by another falling on him. 

Soon we were on the cars again and moved on to Charleston, 
where we found the bridge had been burned. On our arrival 
we found Gen. Stevenson with his division, who had preceded 
us but a few days, had prepared a temporary pontoon bridge 
across the river over which we crossed. Having to cross single 
file we were some time in getting all the men over. When this 
was accomplished we moved on up the road as far as Sweet- 
water, where we remained two days. Here we had issued to us 
what the boys called "sick flour," from which we made biscuit. 
Having no lard or grease of any kind, we worked up our bread 
with salt and water. These biscuits made a lot of sick boys. 
They were so hard, we saw several of the boys gouge holes in 
the biscuits, fill them with powder and blow them open, as they 
said, so they could eat them. While we were here Gen. Long- 
street relieved us and we returned to Chattanooga. On our re- 
turn our brigade was transferred to Stewart's division, but we 
returned to our old quarters on the line of works around Chat- 
tanooga. Sunday morning we in company with Rufus Lamb, 



98 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

went upon Lookout point, where we had a grand view of the 
encampment of both armies. The enemy's two pontoon bridges, 
one below and the other opposite the city, were in plain view. 
Walthrall's brigade of thirteen hundred (1,300) men was around 
on the west side of the mountain and had only two pieces of 
artillery. We were on Lookout nearly all day. Hooker, who 
was in the valley just beyond, was in plain view and on the 
move all the time. They took advantage of the bushes and the 
spur of the hills to obscure their movements, but could be 
plainly seen from Lookout point. They were evidently maneuver- 
ing for an attack on Lookout. The enemy had a battery of 
four guns on one of the knolls across the river in the toe of the 
Moccasin, from which they kept up a constant shelling of the 
Point all evening. 

Hooker began moving against Walthrall the morning of the 
24th, moving slowly and fighting all day as he ascended the 
mountain, reaching the Cowan house about four o'clock in the 
evening. Before night a heavy fog that had gathered down the 
mountain, and was too heavy to scale the top, moved up the 
mountain towards the river and enveloped the men as they 
fought, shutting out all view of the battle except the flash of 
the guns, and for this cause it was called 

"the battle in the clouds." 

The battle lasted until long after dark. The ground was so 
rough that no line could be observed, and so close were the two 
contending forces that it was with difficulty you could mark the 
line between them. The whole side of the mountain was cov- 
ered with men firing from behind trees and rocks, the flash of 
their guns resembling fire-flies. 

Our division lay in the valley and watched the battle above 
the clouds. The night was clear and frosty, and the moon a 
little below the zenith passed through an almost total eclipse. 
We had not yet been asleep, and we lay out on the ground and 
watched the moon as it passed through the shadow of the earth. 
While we lay around Chattanooga, although not fighting, still 
death made her requisition upon us, and we could not shirk the 
demand. The following died while here: 

Wideman, J. P Co. A Stowe, Richard Co. F 

Dakin, Charles " B Raney, J. R " " 

Morgan, Andrew "C Sharp, F. E " " 

Martin, Harris " F Smith, Ranson " " 

Michaels, J. H " " Harshberger, J. D " K 



CHATTANOOGA AND MISSION RIDGE. 99 

MISSION RIDGE. 

As the old town clock on the city hall struck the hour of 
one at night, the whole of Bragg' s army could have been seen 
moving for the crest of Mission Ridge to form line of battle. 
Our brigade left its ditches in the valley and formed line along 
on top of the ridge about one hundred yards from Gen. Bragg's 
headquarters, where now stands the "Lone Cedar" on the ridge. 
In forming our line we put one line as skirmishers at the foot 
of the ridge and had only a single line on top. The two lines 
were so deployed that neither formed a good skirmish line. To 
our right and in front of Bragg's headquarters was a knoll, 
which the Federals had covered with cannon, and from these 
batteries they shelled our brigade and regiment. Stafford's 
battery was placed with our regiment. 

The sun as it mounted the "Ninth hour of the watch," 
taking in the grand view, saw quite a difference in the two 
armies as they lay in unrest waiting for the coming conflict. 
Bragg's army, not its former self, depleted by the battle of 
Chicamauga, had not been strengthened by re-inforcements. 
Gen. Bragg had been returned to Johnson, and Gen. Long- 
street had been detached and sent to Knoxville. So Bragg had 
but a haudfull compared with the large army of Rosecrans. 
The latter had been re-inforced, the wear and tear of his army 
had been more than made good, while Bragg had no source 
from which to fill his depleted ranks. 

While we lay in line of battle, watching the busy maneuv- 
ering of the enemy's troops, one of the Old Nineteenth sat 
alone, seemingly, holding communion with his own heart, ut- 
terly oblivious of what was going on, unconscious of the ex- 
citement that was moving and agitating Bragg's whole army. 
This was Lieut. Col. B. F. Moore, and such a state of mind and 
feeling was never observed before, at any time, much less at 
such a time as this. Lieut. Col. Moore, like Marshal Murat of 
old, was one of the bravest of the brave. We believe that if 
Col. Moore had thought there was one drop of cowardice blood 
coursing his veins, he would have severed every artery to have 
let it out. If there be such a thing as premonition of coming 
danger, the soul of Col. Moore must have been heavily pressed 
by such an unseen power. About noon Col. Moore's father 
came up to our regiment, and the Colonel gave him everything 
he had about his person, his knife, comb, money, watch, every- 



100 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

thing 1 . The battle had not yet opened, but the enemy's thou- 
sands were moving before and approaching the skirmish line 
of the Confederates. The very air smelt of battle, and the 
winds as they came sweeping the crest of Mission Ridge, made 
sad music as if the precursor of the coming storm. Bragg 
had the heaviest part of his line on the right, while his left was 
strung out until it presented only a single and deployed line.. 
About two o'clock in the evening the sound of musketry and 
cannon were heard on our extreme right, and grandly came on 
down the ridge to us and rolled across the valley like a wave at 
high tide. The enemy made a vigorous assault on oar right but 
our men held their places not only against one but repeated 
attacks. 

Gen. Cleburne, after he had exhausted his ammunition, 
continued the fight by rolling large bowlders down the steep 
side of the ridge on the enemy. About three o'clock in the 
evening, Thomas advanced on our left with, it seemed to us, 
ten thousand, where, with our brigade we had only a skir- 
mish line. We counted right in our front, four double columns 
of the enemy all moving directly against our brigade of a sin- 
gle line. 

These columns of the enemy seemed to us to be not more 
than seventy-five or a hundred yards apart. In front of our 
regiment at the foot of the ridge, was a small field not more 
than fifty yards wide, across this these four columns had to 
pass. On the Federals came with that determined step that 
defied all opposition. Our men from the top of the ridge and 
from the foot who were behind works, while the enemy were 
crossing this field, poured so heavy a fire into them, both of 
musketry and cannon, that after they had crossed there were 
left on the field men dead and wounded seemingly as thick as 
stumps in new ground. Several of our men who were at the 
foot of the hill never reached the top, whether they were killed 
or captured we never knew. Those who did reach the top, 
came through a shower of bullets that plowed the ground and 
skinned the trees all around them. 

The air between the Ridge and Orchard Knob was filled 
with shot and shell. The ridge where we were was quite steep 
but the enemy came on, crawling up the steep ascent like bugs, 
and were so thick they were almost in each other's way. ( )ur 
men fell back to a spur of the ridge; leaving the top under a 



MISSION RIDGE. 101 

most galling fire, going down the slope and across an open field 
to our new position on this spur. As we descended the ridge, 
Tom Kennedy, an Irishman of Co. C, brave as are made, did 
not stop to load his gun, but would turn around every now and 
then, take off his hat and shake it at the enemy, while the min- 
nie balls were hissing all around him. Tom Kennedy, brave 
soldier, finally fell in line of battle the 22nd of July, around At- 
lanta. Gen. Strahl formed his men on the spur of the ridge op 
posite the one we had left, where we checked the enemy and held 
them for a while. They charged us from the front, at the same 
time sent a column to our left and rear. In this charge our Lieut. 
Col., B. F. Moore was killed and his brother was captured, 
whether he was wounded or not we do not know, however, he 
remained with the Colonel, who fell on his father's place, al- 
most in sight and hearing of his home. 

The Federals with an overwhelming force against Bragg' s 
left wing, drove it back and had succeeded in gaining his rear 
by left flank, thus forcing Bragg from the ridge and across the 
Chicamauga. Our brigade crossed the Chicamauga after dark 
by the light of large fires on the bank, and being the last to 
cross, were kept on picket all night on the east side of the creek. 

The following is a partial list of the killed and wounded, 
what few we could gather. 

KILLED. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, B. F. Moore, 

Field, John Co. C McRussell, Hugh Co. D 

Johnson, M. S " D Huffmaster. J. M " H 

WOUNDED. 

Smith, Capt, Wm Co. C Holly, Wash B Co. G 

Allison, Bob.. " " Ensinger, Thomas " H 

Burnett, Frank " " Johnson, Andy G " K 

CAPTUEED. 

Bruden, J. M Co. A Lyons, Dan Co. C 

Bowers, James " B Ford, James J " G 

Moore, James Co. B. 

The next morning early, the army began passing through 
Chicamauga station, our brigade being on picket, was the last 
to pass through. Before our regiment left the station, we burn- 
ed a few cars loaded with corn that had not been removed. 
There were a few dead lying here and there around the station, 



102 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

some in the yards and some lying out on the commons. These 
had been killed that morning by sharp shooters and shell. 
They still remained lying on the ground when we left, and if 
they were taken care of by our men we never knew, nor did we 
know who they were or to what regiment they belonged. How 
indifferent we become towards our dead in times of war; we 
pass them, cast a glancing look and go on, with but little more 
feeling than if they were hogs. 

The enemy occupied a ridge near by, from which they kept 
up constant shelling all the time we were in the station, mak- 
ing it lively for us but we did not leave until we were ready. 
We passed out east of the station and across the ridge when 
we turned southward in the direction of Ringgold, Ga. The 
ridge we had just passed was under cultivation and a fence ran 
along the crest of it for some distance. After we had gone 
beyond some distance the Federals had just gained the top of 
the ridge and had lined the fence. We tarried not, nor did we 
loiter by the way for the enemy's vanguard in a measure, was our 
rear guard, they no doubt captured every now and then some 
of our men who happened to straggle too far behind. We 
did not rush but moved slowly on account of our wagon train, 
so that the enemy kept close upon us. As we retreated and 
showed no disposition of resistance, the enemy became more 
bold causing us to halt and form line of battle more than once, 
before reaching Ringgold, twelve miles from Chicamauga sta- 
tion. We passed on through Ringgold, and Ringgold Gap, 
where we halted with all the division train wagons, about half a 
mile beyond the gap. Stewart's division was put in easy po- 
sition for action if needed. 

Cleburne's division was placed in Ringgold Gap. Now this 
gap is the pass through Taylor's ridge, half a mile below the 
town of the same name, and through it, there is just room 
enough for the creek, the public road and the railroad. Thick 
undergrowth and vines covered every available space between 
the creek and the roads. In the gap Cleburne's men were con- 
cealed by the thick undergrowth, on the morning of the 28th, 
and awaited the slow approach of the enemy. Polk's corps was 
in easy reach and at his back. The enemy entered the gap 
with closely compact column, dreaming naught of an ambush 
awaiting them, until Cleburne opened upon them unexpectedly 
such a deadly fire that they had to retreat, leaving in the gap 



MISSION RIDGE. 103 

five hundred dead and wounded. This put a quietus to their 
enthusiasm. We moved on to Dalton unmolested, reaching 
that place November 30th. Our division (Stewart's) encamped 
on the ridge one mile below Rocky Face, and west of the city. 






CHAPTER XV. 



AROUND DALTON. 



OUR camp fires had scarcely began to burn in our new en- 
campment around Dalton before Gen. Bragg laid aside his 
official robes to be put upon the shoulders of another. 
December the 2nd, 1863, Gen. Bragg issued his last order to 
the men he had commanded for the last eighteen months, and 
whom he had led in several hard fought battles. He was en- 
deared to the men, by sharing with them the hardships and 
toils of army life, the long marches by day and by night, 
through rain and sunshine, heat and cold. Often the frozen 
ground the only bed of repose to the weary body, and with the 
clouds for the only covering. With these associations crowd- 
ing his memory it was with a feeling of deep sadness he said 
farewell. In departing he left with the army his blessings and 
the prayers of a grateful friend. The army was loath to give 
him up, the only censure that pervaded the army and gave 
shape to expression was, in not pressing forward and reaping a 
full harvest of victory after his battles, which were his, save the 
last one, Mission Ridge. December the 5th Maj. C. W. Heis- 
kell received his promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel of the regi- 
ment and Capt. J. G. Deaderick, of Company B, was made 
Major. 

To Tennesseeans the future horizon of the young Confeder- 
acy began to look dark and hazy. We had now been battling 
for two and a half years, and had been driven back and back 
by our foes, until our homes were now in the hands and at the 
mercy of the enemy. When Gen. Bragg left, his mantle fell on 
the shoulders of Lieut. Gen. Hardee, for a short time; who in 
taking command of the army sought the confidence of the men 
as their leader, and endeavored to inspire enthusiasm, to dispel 
all clouds of doubt that had gathered above our horizon, to be- 
get again in us a hope of ultimate success. Gen. Hardee was 



ABOUND D ALTON. 105 

in command only twenty-five days, but they were fruitful and 
satisfactory. 

Gen. Joseph E. Johnson took command of the Army of 
Tennessee the twenty-seventh of December, 1863. There were 
but two army corps, Hardee's and Hood's. The latter now 
commanded by Gen. Hindman. 

December the twenty-eighth the Rev. R. W. Norton, a Bap- 
tist minister, was appointed Chaplain of our regiment. We had 
been without a chaplain ever since the reorganization at Co- 
rinth, when the Rev. David Sullins left us. Again we had the 
privilege of building huts for winter quarters, which we did on 
the side of the ridge west of Dal ton. Christmas caught up 
with us again and came on in full sympathy of the times, bois- 
terous and stormy. It seemed there were more fighting and 
drinking in camp than usual, gambling was again on the 
rampage. 

The devil, who is ever alert to his own interest, seemed 
more busy than for some time. Billie Vestal, a little fellow of 
light weight, and Newton Williams of large proportions of two 
hundred pounds or more, seemed to lock horns more often of 
late, and fought harder, but little Billie, like the goat, always 
came of first best. 

Gen. Johnson, now began granting furloughs to all who could 
go home and return by the middle of March, granting a certain 
number at a time. But few of the Old Nineteenth took advan- 
tage of this offer of furlough, partly on account of the improbable 
chances of reaching home. Our regiment was small compared 
to what it was when we started out, having been reduced by deaths , 
wounds, captures and with sorrow, be it said, by some desertions, 
until now it numbered only about one-third of its former self. 

The army of Tennessee had never been engaged in battle 
(save that of Perryville, Ky.) that some of the Old Nineteenth 
Tennessee were not left sleeping on the battle-ground. And while 
Bragg was in Kentucky, our regiment was not lying idle, as 
Vicksburg and Baton Rouge can testify, for the soil of both 
places was stained by the chivalric blood of her men, and where 
we left some of our brave ones to sleep until the morning of the 
resurrection. On our arrival at Dalton, Ga., Gen. Cheatham 
began maneuvering for his old brigade. On our return from 
Sweetwater just before the battle of Mission Ridge, we were 
taken from Gen. Cheatham's division and put in Gen. Stewart's 



106 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

division. February the 12th our brigade left the ridge west of the 
city, and also Gen. Stewart's division, and moved to the east 
side of Dalton, two miles on the Spring-place road, and back 
into Cheatham's division. We were happy and so was Cheat- 
ham. We were now in Hardee's corps; which was made up as 
follows : 

Hakdee's Cokps, 
Four Divisions, 
Cheatham's, Cleburne's, Walker's, Bate's. 
Cheatham's Division: 
Four Brigades, 
Strahl's, Maney's, Wright's, Vaughn's. 
Steal's Bkigade: 
Fourth and Fifth Tennessee, Col. J. J. Lamb. 
Twenty-Fourth Tennessee, Lieut. -Col. S. E. Shannon' 
Nineteenth Tennessee, Col. F. M. Walker. 
Thirty-First and Thirty-Third Tennessee, Lieut. -Col. F. E. 
Stafford. 

In our new quarters we pitched our camp along by the side 
of Jackson's brigade. The first thing that attracted our atten 
tion was stocks in his brigade and a man imprisoned in them. 
Our brigade was furiously indignant at the idea of a man being 
punished in such a manner. So after dark the first night of 
our arrival, the night clear and frosty, the moon seemingly 
shining brighter than usual, some fifty or a hundred men from 
our brigade, made an invasion on Jackson's stocks. While the 
writer took no part in it, curiosity carried him along to see the 
fun. Jackson's men did not like the stocks any more than we 
did, yet they resented what they took to be an invasion and rose 
to a man in defense of the eye-sore of their brigade. Quickly 
the men were in line by companies and moved to the scene of 
the excitement. The alarm being given, we scattered. The 
writer dodged under the shadow of one of the cabins just as a 
company filed by him and made his escape. They captured 
three or four of our men, and kept them in the guard house all 
night. The next morning our men demanded the release of the 
prisoners which was granted. One month from this time, the 
stocks were seen in the Old Nineteenth staring our own men in 
the face and in them our men were placed without much kicking. 
How readily we adapt ourselves through habit to surrounding 



AROUND DALTON. 107 

circumstances, no matter how obnoxious they may have been to 
us at first. February 20th, Cheatham's division was ordered to the 
assistance of Glen. Polk who was at Demopolis, Ala. Leaving 
camp early in the morning we boarded the cars at Dalton for 
Atlanta, where we arrived late in the evening of the same day. 
The next morning Gen. Cheatham and about one-third of our 
brigade took on a high "Tight," and we had a lively time in the 
streets of Atlanta that day. 

The men ran after Gen. Cheatham, calling him "Mars 
Frank;" begging him to make them a speech, (a thing the Gen - 
eral could not do), he would say "Ah, go away, my boys," but 
the boys would not go. The General would run to the next 
corner and there be headed off by another crowd, equally as 
anxious to hear him speak as the others. All the General could 
say was "Come along boys, you are all my boys." If there ever 
was a General and his men, of whom it could be said, the men 
belong to the General, and the General belong to the men, it 
was Gen. Cheatham and his division. 

Leaving Atlanta next morning we moved out for West Point, 
which we reached at four o'clock Sunday morning. We re- 
mained here all day and having an opportunity to attend church 
we took it in, both in the morning and at night. Leaving here 
Monday morning we went to Montgomery where we went aboard 
the steamer "Reindeer" for Selma. Here again we took the 
cars for Demopolis where we met Gen. Polk, and where we re- 
mained for three or four days. Just what was the object of our 
trip remained in the bosom of our commander. We saw noth- 
ing nor did we hear anything to call us to this point. Gen. Polk 
told us he wanted Cheatham's division with him again and wished 
we could stay. But this was not our place on the war's great 
chess board. We returned to Dalton over the same route we 
had gone and back to our camp again. On our return we found 
our rude plank shanties partly torn down . Of course we laid it at 
the door of Jackson's brigade without any feeling of bitterness 
or ill will. We repaired our shanties and felt glad we were at 
home again. During the night of March 21st, snow fell to the 
depth of four or five inches. 

• BATTLE OF SNOWBALLS. 

The next day the Old Nineteenth and the regiment of Jack- 
son's brigade that lay close along the side of our regiment began 
snowballing. At first not more than a dozen began, then one 



108 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

by one joined, then they fell in by the score and soon each regi- 
ment- was in line one against the other. Soon the two brigades 
were out, and finally the greater part of the two divisions 
(Cheatham's and Walker's) were engaged in one of the biggest 
snowballing of the world's history. Generals, Colonels, and 
company officers were engaged. Regular military maneuvers 
were observed, two lines of battle and more than a mile long, 
lasting three and a half or four hours. There were about five 
thousand engaged in it. April the first, Gen. Johnson fought 
two sham battles below Dalton. He had one or two divisions 
on each side, and in which the artillery played a conspicuous 
part. When the first battle came off our division knew nothing 
about it, and just such another hustling of our men to get ready 
to move to the front, you never saw. The men were lounging 
around, some asleep when the cannon opened. Every man had 
his accoutrements on in twenty minutes ready for marching. 
The sound of battle coming from the direction of the front, we 
were sure the enemy had made an attack. 

A few days later Cheatham's, Cleburne's and Bate's divi- 
sions with their respective artillery fought their battle. Citizens 
from Atlanta, Dalton and other points were present to witness 
the battle. After all this was over, the Chaplains of each regi- 
ment and brigade, began a progressive movement in their work. 
A revival spirit took hold of the men as well as the ministers, 
and each brigade had its "Brush arbor." Each afternoon and 
night, meetings were held under each arbor, when inspection 
and drill were not in order. As the brigade arbors were near 
each other, every night could be heard singing and shouting 
from four brigade arbors at the same time. Our Chaplain, Rev. 
R. W. Norton and Rev. Brother McCutcheon, Chaplain of the 24th 
Tennessee regiment, conducted the meetings in our brigade. 
Father McCutcheon was a Cumberland minister, blessed old 
man, he is in heaven to-day, for he was an old man then. 
Maney's brigade was about half a mile from ours. In clearing 
off the ground for their arbor, they had left standing close by 
the arbor a tall hickory tree with scarcely a limb on it, and to 
all appearances perfectly sound. They had swept some trash 
up against this tree and partly burned it, no one thinking 
the tree had burned, not even scorched. The meeting had 
been going on for some time and much interest was manifested. 

On the night of April the 29th there were hundreds under 
the arbor, and about forty penitents. At one bench there were 



AROUND DALTON. 109 

eight penitents and two others, who were Christians, talking to 
them, all were kneeling, when, with no more warning than a 
sharp crack or snap of the tree, it came crashing through the 
arbor and fell along side of this bench, 

KILLING THE TEN AT ONCE. 

This came like an explosion in the deep world of thought, and 
the soldiers whose hearts of adamant had not been moved for 
years, began to show signs of unrest, and began to look for- 
ward beyond the sunset of this life and to think of the life over 
there. The next day they were buried. It was a sad scene, as 
the long column of soldiers moved in solemn procession headed 
by the band playing the funeral march, closely followed by ten 
ambulances, each bearing its dead, to where ten open graves 
were waiting their reception. These same men, who had just 
buried their ten comrades, had in days gone by, buried upon 
the battlefield hundreds of their comrades, piling them in 
ditches one upon another with, seemingly, indifference. But 
here their stout hearts were bowed in deep sorrow, as they laid 
away their comrades beneath the cold sands of the grave. 
The next day the Old Nineteenth buried one of Company G, 
who died with congestive chills, Others died while we were 
here at Dalton, viz: 

Jackson, Lee Co. D Wright, Calvin Co. D 

Rush, William " " Roller, William " C 

Rose, C. F " " Wood, Talbert " " 

Sampson, S. S " " Hord, J. J " K 

Tally, C. F., Co. K. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



ROCKY FACE. 



TAKING it all in all, we had a nice time while we were 
around Dalton. April 29th, 1864. the enemy made a feint 
movement on the front and began to stretch himself, 
waking 1 up from his long winter nap and throwing out his long 
arms feeling for "Johny Rebs." He seemed intent on pushing 
Johnson from his present quarters, but he found our general wide 
awake. Like Davy Crockett, Johnson slept with one eye open 
and was never caught napping. Gen. Hood, who lost a leg in 
the Chicamauga battle had returned and had taken charge of 
his command. While we were here Serg't John Richards and 
Geo. Cheek of Company H. went over to Spring Place, a small 
village east of Dalton and conscripted one William Garner and 
brought him to the regiment. They did this with the expecta- 
tion of getting a furlough, but as the enemy began pressing 
our front, Johnson countermanded the order giving furloughs, 
and Garner joined Company H, and remained with them. May 
8th, our (Strahl's) brigade was ordered in double quick time to 
Dug Gap, some five miles below Dalton, where Hooker was 
trying to force his way through, but was resisted by Kentucky 
and Arkansas cavalry. We reached the gap after an exceed- 
ingly hard march, having double quicker! nearly all the way to 
the foot of the ridge, then had to climb a long steep road, where 
we reached the top nearly exhausted. On our way up the ridge 
we passed several cavalrymen at a spring severely wounded. 
Hooker's command was in plain view and near the top of the 
gap on the other side. After dark their camp fires filled all the 
valley beyond. We formed our line along on top of the ridge, 
and for some time the enemy's artillery sent shot after shot 
scalping the crest of the ridge. Soon after dark the skirmish- 
ing ceased and all became quiet. Again our ears were greeted 
with some sweet music from the Federal bands which made us 



ROCKY FACE. Ill 

wish "this cruel war was over." We lay here all night on the 
rough rocks. The next morning Cleburne's division relieved 
us and we moved to the right on the line above Dalton and occu- 
pied a position on 

HOCKEY FACE, 

overlooking the gap through which the public road, Mill creek 
and the railroad ran Our regiment occupied the summit of 
Rocky Face, where we piled up rocks for the protection of our 
heads, behind which we had to lie down in order to get even 
that protection. The enemy's bullets were coming thick and 
fast and now and then would find their way through the rock 
wall and wound our boys in the head and face. Their skirmish 
line was at the foot of the ridge, and just in front of our regi- 
ment was an opening in the bushes as if it had been cleared, 
some twenty feet wide. We were lying down looking through 
an opening in the rock wall when one of the enemy's pickets 
started across this opening. . All along by the writer the boys 
were on the lookout, and no sooner did the Federal picket show 
himself in the clearing than a Rebel bullet went through his body. 
We were watching him. Soon as he fell two of his comrades 
came to pick him up when they too fell and lay by his side. Others 
started to them but quickly returned. The leaves of the trees 
just over our heads were cut by the leaden missiles and were 
falling thick all around us, when Gren. Joseph E. Johnson came up 
to where we were and would stand and tiptoe to see over the ridge 
while the bullets were cutting the leaves right around his head. 
We were lying down, afraid to stand up. One of the boys ven- 
tured to warn the General of the danger he was in but he only 
smiled and remained a few minutes longei, and went on up the 
line alone and afoot. We remained here until late in the even- 
ing when we were ordered to our extreme right and placed on a 
high knoll standing out in the valley not far from Varnell's sta- 
tion. We were up some two or three hundred feet, and in our 
front about one mile in plain view, the Federals moved across 
the valley column after column towards our right. They had a 
heavy skirmish line under us, and Wheeler's cavalry was skir- 
mishing with them. We had thrown up breastworks around on 
this knoll. Capt. Deaderick and the writer were standing by 
the ditches watching the two skirmish lines charge each other. 
Standing down in the ditch the writer could not see very well 
and had to get up on the embankment while the Captain being 



112 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

much taller stood in the ditch. We had been watching- but a 
few minutes when zip came a ball passing between us, from the 
gun of a sharpshooter lying behind a stump in the field in front 
of us about two hundred and fifty yards off, who had taken de- 
liberate aim at us. We agreed to watch the sharpshooter time 
about, and one watch the skirmish ; when we saw the gun fire 
we could sit down out of danger before the ball would reach us. 
Out on the skirmish line there was considerable commotion 
raised and we both looked and while we were looking the sharp- 
shooter fired, the ball brushing the writer's coat just under the 
chin and passed through the Captain's hat. A short distance this 
side of where the Federal column crossed the valley, stood a 
beautiful residence surrounded by orchard, shade trees and out- 
buildings, and just before night the Federals burned all these 
buildings. We left the extreme right late in the evening of the 
eleventh and moved back to or near Dug Gap and remained all 
night. Sherman was moving down the valley on the opposite 
side of the ridge toward Resaca. Gen. Leonidas Polk had 
reached Resaca from Demopolis, Ala., early in the morning of 
the twelfth and had taken position below the town. Hood left 
Dalton early in the morning of the twelfth, and Cheatham's 
division left about midnight, and reached Resaca about sunrise 
the morning of the thirteenth, where we found Hood's pickets 
were already engaging those of the enemy about one mile in the 
direction of Snake Creek Gap, through which the enemy had 
passed, twenty-three thousand strong, under McPherson and 
were pressing with vigor for Resaca and the railroad bridge 
across the Oostenaula. 

Sherman followed Johnson on the east side of the ridge. 
On reaching Resaca, about sun up, our regiment with the bri- 
gade formed line in front of the town and near the railroad. 
Polk formed on the left and below the town with his left resting 
near the river, Hardee was in the center in front of the town, 
and Hood's line extended to the right and almost to the Con- 
nasauga river above. 

Polk skirmished heavily all day of the 13th, and so did part 
of Hardee's corps. The two armies took up the principal part 
of the day in maneuvering for positions. Our boys were on tip- 
toe in their frenzy of excitement, and, like the old war-horse, 
could hardly be held in with bit and bridle. The enemy kept 
inching along closer and closer to our lines all the evening, and 



114 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

with an effort our officers kept down the inclination on the part 
of our men to charge. That night the two armies lay in line of 
battle close to each other, and ready for the fray next morning. 
Heavy skirmishing began early next morning, with Polk against 
McPherson, and soon the whole line was engaged. Our divis- 
ion engaged Baird and Jefferson C. Davis in a desperate charge, 
where the fighting continued for two hours unabated. In fact 
the whole line from right to left was exceedingly heavy ; mus- 
ketry and cannon played almost incessantly, and long after the 
battle had subsided the boom, bang, zip, zip, sound continued 
in our ears. More than a hundred cannons of both armies were 
playing upon each other, and the woods and fields were filled 
with deadly missiles of shot and shell. 

Hood drove the Federal line around some distance, and on 
Cheatham's line, held by Strahl's brigade, there was exceed- 
ingly hard fighting, where the Old Nineteenth lost in killed and 
wounded. The battle seemed more stubborn as the night came 
on until dark put an end to the fight. Again the two armies lay 
in line, in the same relative position as when the battle ceased. 
There was but little change of position in either army. The 
next morning, May the 15th, the center of the two armies seemed 
to be the attraction of the war-god's fury. Fighting Joe Hooker 
made a most savage charge on Cheatham's line, coming in solid 
phalanx by brigades, one after the other, but were driven back 
to the point of starting, with heavy loss, which was plainly vis- 
ible ; lying upon the ground were their dead and wounded over 
which we had driven them. Here, too, the Old Nineteenth, as 
usual, had her share of casualties, whose flag was on the front 
line, amidst this storm of shot and shell, guarded and kept by 
as faithful and brave a regiment as ever was on the field of car- 
nage. Here Wm. R. Rhea, of Co. Gr, lost a leg, and others were 
killed and wounded of the regiment. J. M. Wright and Tobe 
Moody were killed here. 

General Sherman had constructed a pontoon across the 
river at Lay's ferry, several miles below the city, and began 
crossing by the middle of the evening of the 15th. This move 
of Sherman caused Johnson to withdraw from' Resaca, which 
he did at midnight. General Hood crossed the Oostanaula on 
a pontoon, above Resaca; Hardee on the railroad bridge and 
Polk on the county bridge, a short distance below. Strange as 
it may seem, other regiments sometimes would go through a 



A FAMILY UNDER FIEE. 115 

battle and come out unharmed, but the Old Nineteenth never 
came out of an engagement without leaving some of her men, 
and here many of her men fired their last gun in battle and 
ended the struggle of life as well. 

During the first day's fight around Resaea we were stand- 
ing by the roadside, and just below, some two hundred yards, 
stood a cabin in which were two women and three children. 
Just at this time there was only skirmishing going on ; the 
enemy, being in our front about a quarter of a mile, opened a 
battery with this cabin in its range. The first shot passed over 
the cabin and exploded in the distance ; the second burst in the 
yard, when out came the women and children screaming at the 
top of their voices. The shells by this time were coming faster 
and as each shot passed or exploded near by, the women and 
children would throw up their hands and fall on their faces and 
halloed as loud as they could, "O, Lordy! O, Lordy." Then 
they came running towards us, but before reaching us the bat- 
tery ceased and they returned. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE battle of Resaca was the first engagement that amount- 
ed to more than a heavy skirmish, the army of Tennessee 
had been in under Gen. Johnson. Sherman had many 
more men than Johnson, he could send a large force around him 
and yet confront him with as many men as Johnson had, but 
Johnson met Sherman in every move he made, and was never 
taken by surprise. We fell back to Calhoun, where we rested 
one day and night and then moved on to Adairsville, reaching 
there the morning of the seventeenth, where we formed line of 
battle. Schofield being the vanguard of the enemy, came up in 
front of Cheatham and began skirmishing. Although no regu- 
lar engagement seemed anticipated, yet each one kept strength- 
ening his lines until it reached the dignity of a battle, and con- 
tinued long after dark. Here one of our batteries came very 
near getting General Sherman. He rode up to their front line, 
to a point in plain view of one of our batteries, when a shot 
from one of our guns aimed at the group, burst in a few feet of 
the General; he turned and moved off a few feet just in time, 
when a second shot burst just where he had been standing. In 
this (must I say big?) skirmish, again a few of the Old Nine- 
teenth gave up their lives, a sacrifice to the god of war. John 
Sherman, Co. B; Wm. Oliver, Co. G; M. Orick, Co. K, were 
killed. John Baily and Wm. Bowers, of Co. G; Wm. 
Banard and Wm. Mee, of Co. K, were wounded. Sherman 
again moved around Johnson and we fell back to Cass Station, 
about seven miles below, where he formed line with the 
full purpose of giving battle. Here Johnson had an open 
field in front, over which the enemy must go if he attacked. 
Sherman did not advance, but moved to our left in a southwest- 
ern direction, and away from the railroad. Johnson abandoned 
his lines and moved down the railroad as far as Cartersville, 
when he too, left the railroad, which he had been hugging all 
the way from Dalton; moved southwest and crossed the Etowah 



NEW HOPE LINE. 117 

fixer not far from Roland's Ferry, about five miles from Car- 
tersville, while at the same time, Gen. Sherman was crossing 
at Stile's Ferry, six miles below and to our right, and moved up 
and on the west side of Raccoon creek as fast as he could. John- 
Son pushed forward his men to keep pace with him. Johnson to 
facilitate his movements, pushed his men on different roads, 
parallel, yet centering on, or leading to New Hope Church. 
Gen. Polk halted at Dallas; Cheatham's division of Hardee's 
corps moved on to a point beyond Dallas and halted late in the 
evening of the 24th. Hood came in on the Alatoona road, biv- 
ouaced near New Hope Church. Our division had pitched 
camp seven miles beyond Dallas, but was recalled at midnight 
and in a drenching rain we moved back to Dallas. Johnson 
formed here what was known as the 

NEW HOPE LINE. 

Sherman thought Johnson was still in the vicinity of Ala- 
toona, and on reaching New Hope and Dallas, thought he was 
beyond and in Johnson's rear, but found himself in the very 
teeth of Johnson, with eyes wide open and staring him in the 
face. Along the line we threw up works of loose logs, which 
however, did not amount to much. About the middle of the 
evening the enemy fiercely attacked our line, seemingly deter- 
mined to drive us from the face of the earth. There were two 
battling elements at work at the same time this evening, battle 
of men and battle of the clouds, each vied with the other, 
which could make the most and loudest noise. It was a terrific 
thunderstorm. The attack of the enemy lasted for two hours or 
more of hard fighting and skirmishing until after dark. G. W. 
Holt, T. L. Miller and Henry Burrows, of Co. K; Elija Hale and 
Daniel Breen, of Co. G, were wounded. Our loss in this battle 
was something over four hundred and fifty in killed and wound- 
ed. The attack was renewed the next morning all along the 
line from New Hope Church to our extreme left. But little 
sleeping was done the night before. Each army now was vigi- 
lant and on the lookout for any surprise or attack, for each 
w T atched for the weak points of the other's line. On this line 
Billie Vestal came near losing his life. The regiment was rest 
ing, and Billie was sitting down, tailor-fashion, facing the ene- 
my when a shell came and burst in his lap. A small scratch on 
his face, scarcely bringing blood, was all the wound he received, 



118 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

except powder burn. The writer picked the powder from his 
body, from his legs, arms and face. What a wonderful escape! 

Not an hour day nor night but the sound of musketry and 
cannon were heard. Changing positions, fighting as we changeed, 
moving here and moving there, fighting as we went, fighting 
standing, fighting lying down, yes, fighting all the time. Up 
to this time Hardee's corps formed the left wing, and was south 
of New hope, and late in the evening the corps was divided 
and Cleburne's division was moved to the right of Hood to 
Pickett's mills, where on the 27th he was attacked by Howard. 

pickett's mills. 

Cleburne had good breastworks with head logs, behind 
which the men lay quietly waiting. As the enemy advanced, 
Cleburne held his fire, and but for the Confederate flags float- 
ing above the head logs, there was nothing to show that the 
ditches were not deserted. The enemy advanced slowly and 
with a firm step, expecting the Confederate guns to open on 
them every moment. Yet when they were within a few yards 
of ( deburne's ditches everything seemed as still as death. No 
one, none but God, ever knew the fearful emotion of their souls, 
and with what trepidation of heart they now advanced. They 
could not but have known and doubtless felt that there was a 
Confederate gun, (which was the fact) , pointing with deadly aim 
at each and every man. Was this bravery \ Then the Spar- 
tans must be laid upon the shelf. Now they are only a few feet 
from the ditches, when there rang out upon the stillness, the 
command of Cleburne, "now men fire !" Like a flash of blind- 
ing lightning, with a peal of deafening thunder, there went up 
from under the head logs of Cleburne's works a volley that did 
its deadly work. But few who composed that front line re- 
turned. That one volley laid upon the ground more than one 
thousand brave men. The next day, the 28th of May, Cleburne 
moved back to the right of Cheatham, and the same evening 
Col. J. J. Lamb, of the 5th Tennessee regiment and of our bri- 
gade was killed. At midnight the same day the enemy charged 
the lines of Cheatham and Cleburne, and soon after that of 
Bate, and continued until day light, and too in an almost con- 
tinuous fall of rain. In these ditches we had to remain, where 
the water and mud in many places were two inches deep, where 
we slept when we could. 




LIEUTENANT R. P. JAMES 

Lieut. James was living' in Chattanooga, Tenn., pursuing" his trade as tin- 
ner. when the war began. He joined Company K of the Nineteenth Tennes- 
see Confederate regiment in June. 1861. He fought with conspicuous gallantry 
through the war, receiving a severe wound in the battle of Franklin, Tenn. 



DEATH OF GENERAL POLK. 119 

On June 2nd, Bate, Cleburne and Walker were moved to 
our right leaving Cheatham to hold the extreme left alone. On 
the 4th, Cheatham moved to the right with the other divisions 
of Hardee, which then occupied the extreme right, with Hood 
in the center and Polk on the left. 

There was a continuous moving of troops to-day, under a 
constant fire from the skirmish lines all the time. Sherman 
kept inching along back towards the railroad and Johnson kept 
pace with him. On the eighth, Johnson fell back from the New 
Hope line and formed a new line to the left and beyond Lost 
Mountain and running to and over Pine Mountain that stood 
out in a salient and continued on over the top of the Kenne- 
saw Mountain. This new line again placed Hardee in the center 
and Cheatham's division along over Pine Mountain, with 
Strahl's brigade and the Old Nineteenth resting on top of the 
Mountain. Here on this, as was on the other, fighting was con- 
tinuous day and night. 

DEATH OF GEN. POLK. 

On the morning of June 14th, Generals Johnson, Polk, 
Hardee, Hood and Cheatham were riding down the line inspect- 
ing it, and that of the enemy's as well. On reaching Pine 
Mountain at a point of fine observation held by the Old Nine- 
teenth, of Strahl's brigade, they all rode up on the eminence 
where they had a good view of the enemy's lines. As soon as 
the Generals reached the summit, they were observed by the 
enemy and were fired upon from a steel battery, not more than 
four hundred yards in our front. They all fell back out of sight 
and of range. Gen. Polk, not satisfied with the view he had, 
rode back to the same point but for a moment, yet one moment 
too long, a second shot from the same battery well aimed sent 
a four pound shot through his body, killing him instantly. In 
this sad calamity we sustained a loss not to be easily filled. 
Gen. Polk was a brave officer, a good man and a Christian sol- 
dier. The next day, the 15th of June, our regiment was trans- 
ferred to Maney's brigade with Col. Walker in command, and 
the 41st Tennessee was taken from Maney and put in Strahl's 
brigade. 

As Pine Mountain made a considerable elbow in Johnson's 
line, he on the 16th of June, abandoned this point and thus 
straightened his line and shortened it. On the 17th Johnson 
swung the left of his line back towards the railroad, and aero ss 



120 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

a small stream called Mud Creek, where works had been pre- 
pared for us. The point where Cheatham's and Loring's 
divisions joined was found to be too weak, and Johnson swung 
still further around with his left crossing Nose creek, but still 
hanging on to old Kennesaw. Cheatham's division occupied 
on this new line an elevation from which the enemy longed to 
dislodge him. On the 24th, they made an attack on this part of 
the line which lasted for some time, and which was an utter 
failure on their part. In all these engagements of Cheat- 
ham, the Old Nineteenth was there, with her battle-flag all torn 
and tattered, and left the soil more sacred by being stained by 
the life blood of her noble men. I would be doing injustice to 
the grand old regiment if I did not say the Old Nineteenth was 
always in the fight and always on the firing line, and if it were 
possible for the roll call of Cheatham's division to be made of 
her slain in battle, when the name of the Old Nineteenth would 
be called, there would come from the bivouac of the slain, quick 
and loud the answer, here. Johnson still held Kennesaw Moun 
tain, and on this line which was nearly parallel with the rail- 
road, was some of the hardest fighting of the war. 

OLD KENNESAW. 

What a grand view from this grand old mountain. Stand- 
ing in bold outline a little north of west from Marietta is Pine 
Mountain, dressed in its dark fringed foliage, through which 
the passing winds mournfully sing a sad requiem to the memory 
of General Leonidas Polk, who gave up his life on its summit, 
June 14th, 1864. Further on and southward is Lost Mountain, 
standing as a lone sentinel to guard the bloody fields and the 
dead of Dallas, New Hope and Pickett's mills. From the 
western base of Kennesaw ran Johnson's line in a southern di- 
rection, for perhaps seven miles, and parallel to his, ran the 
line of the ever vigilent enemy, watching his chance to break 
Johnson's lines and route him from the field. For days on this 
line the blue smoke from the guns outlined our position, and at 
night it was lit up with the red glow of the artillery and small 
arms. Early in the morning of the 27th, there was a noticeable 
restlessness and an unusual movement of the enemy's troops. 

Sherman began an advance all along in front of Johnson's 
line. The cry rang out up and down the line, they come, they 
come, and from left to right and right to left the music of bat- 
tle rang, and our men sent volley after volley into the ranks of 
the advancing foe. 



OLD KENNESAW. 121 

Oh my! the cannons bellowed like so many mad bulls, sent 
shot and shell plowing the ground, scattering rocks, dirt and 
everything moveable, cutting down trees and felling limbs as if 
the air and tree tops were full of invisible sappers and miners. 
At times, from the roar and smoke of battle, we fought neither 
by sound nor sight. The air was so full of sulphurious smoke 
of battle we could not see, and the roar of musketry so continu- 
ous we could not distinguish the report of our gun from that 
of the one by our side, and could only tell by the rebound of the 
gun whether it had gone off or not. Maney's brigade, in which 
the Old Nineteenth now was, held a position on this line known 
as Dead angle. 

Here Thomas charged our line, coming with a frenzied 
bravery column after column, while our cannon and musketry 
played upon them cutting them down like grass before the sickle. 
They kept filling up and coming on until they were in a few steps 
of our line, when they halted, turned and back to their 
ditches, but to rally and come again. what a slaughter was 
here. Braver men never fought than those Thomas had, but 
their bravery only led them to their death. Many of their men 
reached our ditches, only to find a last resting place. 

" Here a brave boy, a Federal color-bearer, a Tennessee boy, 
crazed with the excitement of the hour, actually planted his 
colors on our works when they were seized by a Captain of a 
Tennessee Confederate regiment and a struggle ensued. The 
color-bearer drew his pistol and shot the captain dead. While 
the smoking pistol was yet in his hand, he was riddled with 
bullets from a dozen Confederate guns. Verily this was "steel 
against steel," and "diamond cut diamond," here with Cheat- 
ham. Of the two contending forces each one could but admire 
the bravery of the other. Not only with Cheatham, Cleburne 
and Walker, but all along Johnson's line from one end to the 
other was one blaze of fire and roar of battle. 

Around old Kennesaw's base, so rapid was the bombard- 
ment from Sherman's one hundred guns, and from those on our 
side, that it seemed ablaze with fire. The bursting shells and 
deadly missiles from the guns of the two contending armies, 
made the old mountain seem like a grand volcano. Language 
would fail to picture this field of butchery with its dead and 
wounded. The Federals came with a huzzah, only to be hurled 
back with the wild "Rebel yell." General French who sat on 



122 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

top of Kennesaw mountain and beheld the entire battle scene 
below, says: 

"We sat there perhaps an hour or more enjoying a bird's- 
eye view of one of the most magnificent sights ever allotted 
to man; to look down upon a hundred and fifty thousand men 
arrayed in strife of battle on the plain below. As the infantry 
closed in, the blue smoke of the musketry marked out our line 
for miles, while over it rose in cumuli like clouds, the white 
smoke of the artillery. Through the rift of the smoke, as it 
was wafted aside by the winds, we could see the assault made 
on Cheatham, and the struggle was hard and there it lasted 
longest. So many guns were trained on those by our side, and 
so incessant was the roar of cannon and the sharp explosion of 
the shells that naught else could be heard." 

All along the line the fighting was desperate and beyond 
description. To the credit of the enemy, no braver men bore 
the standard of stars and stripes, than the army Sherman sent 
to wrest old Kennesaw from the grasp of Johnson this memor- 
able 27th of June. And to the credit of the Confederate army, 
under Gen. Joseph E. Johnson, who is deserving of greater 
praise because they were much fewer in number, yet met the 
storm and stood as firm as the base of old Kennesaw around 
which they fought. There was not a single point on Johnson's 
line where the men wavered for a single moment. They fought, 
not with haphazard aim, but deliberation and judgement. In 
Walker's division, an incident occured, clearly showing the 
heroism of the Southern soldier, a schrapnel shot came through 
under the head log and fell in the ditch among the men, which 
for the instant caused a stampede, but while the fuse was yet 
burning, a sergeant of a Georgia regiment leaped forward, 
seized the deadly projectile and threw it out of the ditch, when 
it exploded without doing any harm. In front of Cheatham 
many of the enemy's dead lay on the ground until the third day 
after the battle, exposed to the hot sun. No one dared to ven- 
ture to them, or show any part of their body above the head 
log. A truce covering Cheatham's division was agreed upon, 
lasting one hour for the purpose of burying the dead. During 
that hour the ground between the two lines was thronged with 
the Blue and the Gray, who met as friend meets friend. To them 
the hour seemed to expire in a moment, and soon they were 
back in the ditches fighting again. At one point on Cheatham's 



OLD KENNESAW. 123 

line the two armies were so close that we had to cut traverse 
ditches through which the men had to go in and out of our 
ditches, and even then it was exceedingly dangerous. A hat 
raised on the end of a stick above the head log, would be filled 
with bullet holes in less than a minute. For thirty days and 
nights the fighting had been one continuous battle. The coun- 
try all around was cut up with entrenchments and honeycombed 
with rifle pits, and the woods looked as dreary and as desolate as 
if it had been swept by a tornado. 

During the thirty days fighting around Dallas, New Hope and 
Kennesaw, the Old Nineteenth lost many of her noble and 
brave men. Two of whom we make mention, because we had 
more to do with them after their death, than with others. John 
White, of Company E, is one of whom we speak first. He was 
an educated and polished young man, related to some of the 
best families of Knoxville, Tennessee. John White was almost 
torn to pieces with a shell. When we reached him, which was 
in a short time, we did what we could. We took out of his 
his bowels a piece of shell that would weigh two pounds, deeply 
imbedded. We shall never forget the expression of anguish 
and despair that rested upon his sad pale face. 

He talked but little, but that little was an earnest exhortation 
to those around him. The last audible words he ever spoke 

were, "boys, don't live as I have, remember my ," gone, 

the battle strife will not molest him any more. We carried him 
back to the road leading to Marietta, where, with twelve or fif- 
teen dead, we lay all night long guarding them. The next 
morning we carried him to Marietta and buried him. 

The other one was John Spears, of Company K, who was also 
killed the next day on this line. Spears one morning was going 
after water for the men on the line. He had fifteen or twenty 
canteens across his shoulder and was going down an incline to 
a branch. When about half way or a hundred yards from the 
line, a shell just brushing the head logs on the line, and was of 
the kind the boys say "had a shuck tied to its tail," passed on 
and struck Spears and tore about half the top of his head off. 
He had an aunt living in Marietta, and we were detailed to carry 
him there and see that he was buried. We found his aunt about 
noon. While it was a sad meeting, she did not forget us but 
urged that we remain and take dinner. We could not refuse, 
and persuasion was not needed. Nearly two long years had 



124 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

gone by since we had eaten in a house or at a table. We were 
sorry for her, poor, sad, but kind-hearted woman, sitting down 
to the table she could not eat, but we were too busily engaged 
just then to think of the dead. There were thousands of dead 
left on the blood-stained fields of this Kennesaw region, to sleep 
through the ages, whom the loud cannon's roar cannot awake 
to glory again. 

Sherman not being able to move Johnson . by direct attack, 
began his flank movement again. He sent McPherson and 
Schofield around our left and thought to gain Johnson's rear 
at Ruff's and Smyrna. But Sherman found Johnson as ready 
to meet him as at any time past. This move of Sherman's 
caused Johnson not only to abandon Kennesaw and Marietta, 
but all the country he had struggled so hard to hold. At Ruff's 
during the morning of the third, the enemy's pickets came up 
only a short distance, not enough to tell whether an enemy was 
there or not. 

AT SMYRNA. 

The next morning, the ememy supposing there was no one in 
their front, were more bold. Stanley came up and pressed vig- 
orously forward as if no one was there to challenge, but a sur- 
prise awaited him. He soon found his division in a perfect 
hornet's nest. The sheet of lead that came from the hidden 
lines of the Confederates in the edge of the woods, and grape 
and canister from several batteries, caused them to return in 
hot haste across the field over which they had just come. They 
left a few of their number lying on the field dead and wounded, 
not taking time to look after them. Johnson remained here 
some two or three days, then he crossed the Chattahoochee 
river where he formed his lines close along its banks, where we 
remained for several days. In the meantime Sherman moved 
the greater part of his army to our right and up the river, where 
he too crossed at different points. Schofield crossed seven miles 
above the railroad at Phillip's ferry at the mouth of Soap creek. 
McPherson crossed seven or eight miles further up at Rosswell's 
ferry. Before Sherman crossed the river it was the dividing 
line between the two armies. Our videttes and those of the en- 
emy sat upon opposite banks of the Chattahoochee and 
chatted with each other. Now and then they would swim across 
to each other's post, while some would keep a look-out for the 
officers of their respective commands. They had been fighting 



AT SMYRNA. 125 

so long on the picket line, now they seemed glad for a change 
and for a time when they could hold a friendly chat as they had 
done before. They exchanged pocket knives, combs and any- 
thing they had, so long as the river divided the videttes. After 
Sherman crossed he moved around on our right towards At- 
lanta. Johnson moved out from the river and formed his lines 
on or near Peach-tree creek, which obstructed Sherman's march. 
Sherman had intended celebrating the Fourth of July in At- 
lanta, but Johnson objected. 

Johnson had formed his lines for a firm stand on Peach-tree 
creek for another bold fight. Late in the eveing he was hand- 
ing out instructions to the various commanders for the next 
day's action when he received the following telegram: 

"Lieut. -Gen. J. B. Hood has been commissioned to the tem- 
pory rank of General under the late laws of Congress. I am 
directed by the Secretary of War to inform you that, as you have 
failed to arrest the advance of tbe enemy to the vicinity of At- 
lanta and express no confidence that you can defeat or repel 
him, you are hereby relieved from the command of the Army 
and Department of Tennessee, which you will immediately turn 
over to General Hood." S. Cooper, 

Ad'jt and Inspector General. 

So we see that "Richmond on the James" had already de- 
creed the end of Johnson's command of the Army of Tennes- 
see. There is not one who could have done as well as he. This 
was a death knell to the Army of Tennessee. Was the finger 
of God in this? We will see later. With bowed heads and sor- 
rowful hearts the Army of Tennessee yielded to the mandate of 
fate. We were surprised and the news of the change came to 
the men like a clap of thunder from a clear sky. And as Sher- 
men said, this was as giving to him twenty thousand men. We 
give the names of a few of the men killed and wounded since 
we left Adairsville : 

KILLED. 

White, John Co. E Roller, James Co. G 

Kincaid, C. F " " Spears, John " " 

McRoberts, J " F 



126 



THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 





WOUNDED. 




Hutton, Andy 


...Co. B 


Demurs, A. J 


Co 


Barren, Daniel 


It IC 


Mc Jenkins, Sol. . . . 




Gentry, Joshua 


... " D 


Swann, S. G 




Bradley, Benj 


It t i 


Thomas, C. W 




Barnett, F 


U t ( 


Watts, William.... 




Cantral, James 


U t 4 


Hale, Elijah 




Vestal, Billie 


.. " E 


Stricklin, Rube 




MeRoberts J 


" F 


Miller, T. L 

Holt, G. W 




Hood, L 


it t< 




Brown, John 


a a 


Burrows, Henry... 




Carnett, Leander . . . 


it t i 







F 



G 



K 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL F. M. WALKER. 

General Frank M. Walker was a Kentuckian by birth, and a Tennesseean 
by adoption. His adopted home was Chattanooga, Tenn. Served as Lieuten- 
ant in a Kentucky company in the Mexican war. Raising- a company of 
infantry in Chattanooga, he joined the Nineteenth Tennessee regiment, and at 
the organization of the regiment at Knoxville. in June, 1861. was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. At the reorganization, in 1862, he was elected Colonel of the 
regiment. He was a conscientious christian, a brave soldier and a kind officer. 
He was killed the 22d of July, near Atlanta. Gra., in one of the fiercest battles 
of the war. 



CHAPTER Will. 



AltorNI) ATLANTA. 



BEFORE starting out with General Hood as commander of 
the Army of Tennessee, whom we do qoI censure, we 
must say we could not see why Johnson was removed. 
Johnson's idea of warfare did not consisl of butchery or use- 
less sacrifice. With his small army he acted on the defensive, 
and only fought when he was certain of doing the mosl good. 
No one else could have done more than he, with the means at 
his command. 

In looking at the situation with all the facts, what Johnson 
had accomplished with the insufficient force he had, it would 
seem, there was a hand unseen, a "Vis a tergo," other than 
Davisand his cabinet, moving the events on the great chess 
board of time. That a mistake was made time will tell. 

That Gen. J. B. Hood was a bold, brave, intrepid fighter no 
one will deny; was all scarred and crippled from wounds received 
in battle, which he did carry as mementos through life. At 
Gettysburg he was wounded in the arm, and ever after it hung 
paralized and useless at his side, and at Chickamauga he lost a 
leg. Brave to greatness and true to his country's call, General 
Hood with one leg and one arm, remained with the army and at 
the head of his command showing such pluck and indomitable 
courage, that the enemy styled him the "one armed, one legged 
fighting devil." Early in the morning of the 18th, Gen. Eood 
rode to Gen. Johnson's headquarters and remained with him 
all day, for the purpose of getting his plans for the battle then 
hourly expected. On Hood taking command of the army, we 
lost our division commander, Gen. Cheatham, who was put in 
command of Hood's old corps, and Gen. S. D. Lee took Cheat- 
ham's division. Gen. A. P. Stewart was given Polk's old corps. 

Hood's line of battle was Hardee's corps on the right, Stew- 
art's in the center and Cheatham's on the left. This formed 



128 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

the line of battle of Peachtree creek. The battle ground was 
rough and uneven, and Stewart's men were the only ones en- 
gaged here, and had to cross a ravine to reach the enemy's 
works. The battle did not materialize as was expected. Mc- 
Pherson and Gresharn already on our right, were far advanced 
towards Atlanta, which forced Hood to draw Cleburne's divi- 
ion from Hardee's corps to meet them. Hardee did not press 
the fight in front of him. Sherman continued the advance of 
his army towards Atlanta, and Hood fell back and occupied the 
ditches in and around the city. McPherson continued his line 
of march around Atlanta and across the Atlanta and Augusta 
railroad with the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and the Seventeenth 
army corps until they were southeast of the city where they 
quietly settled down, as he thought, in perfect security. 

During the night of the 21st of July, Hardee's corps made a 
rapid night march of some twelve or fifteen miles, and made an 
attack on McPherson early in the morning of 

JULY 22nd. 

We reached and crossed the creek at Cobb's mill in the rear 
of Sherman and made the attack from a direction least expected 
by the enemy. Hardee was behind them. The angry peals 
of artillery, and the roll of musketry that greeted the ears of 
Sherman and McPherson as they stood together near Sherman's 
headquarters must have startled them from their feeling of se- 
curity. Sherman, looking in the direction away from the sup- 
posed Confederate army exclaimed "what does that mean?" to 
which McPherson said "I will go and see." He did, but never 
returned. Our men were pouring shot hot and heavy into the 
15th and 16th army corps, when McPherson left Sherman and 
hastened with all possible speed with only a portion of his staff 
to the scene of action. 

Before he was aware of danger he ran upon a column of 
Cheatham's division headed by our brigade, in the line of battle 
in a skirt of woods right in his rear. The brigade was Maney's 
in which was the Old Nineteenth, and commanded by Colonel 
Walker. McPherson rode up close to us before he observed we 
were Confederates, when he was halted and commanded to sur- 
render. But acting upon the first impulse of the moment, he 
turned to escape, when a volley from our regiment was fired 
and Gen. McPherson fell from his horse, killed, and one or two 
of his staff wounded and captured, only one made his escape. 



AEOUND ATLANTA. 129 

Cheatham's division pressed forward to their works and into 
the hottest of the fight, breaking Logan's line and capturing 
two or three pieces of artillery and two hundred men. The en- 
my's line of works at this place formed an obtuse angle, the 
point of which our regiment approached. 

Here John Mason, our color bearer, displayed remarkable 
courage. He ran forward several steps ahead of the regiment 
and planted the colors on the enemy's works. In this charge 
Col. F. M. Walker fell, and here the brave and faithful soldier, 
John Templeton, of Co. A, also fell. Templeton was always at 
roll call when not sick or on duty. In this charge, which was a 
desperate one, the enemy were driven back, but soon made a 
charge on us, in which they recaptured the guns we had taken 
from them. In this second charge Captain Paul McDermott and 
Sergeant John Richards, of Company H, were mortally wounded ; 
Tom. Duitt and John Long, of Company A, were killed; Silas 
Bookard was wounded and died shortly afterwards. There had 
not been much harder fighting anywhere than was done in this 
battle. Gen. Hardee lost heavily, but the enemy's loss must 
have been greater, their loss in killed, wounded and captured 
was about five thousand. Our brigade lost one hundred and 
forty. The Old Nineteenth Tennessee had her share of casual- 
ties, as usual. Our field hospital was back on the ridge, near 
Cobb's mill, a short distance in the rear of the battlefield. 

When Hardee returned to the city and to his position around 
the works, a detail was made to remain in the hospital with the 
wounded, of whom were more Federals than Confederates. 
From this field hospital, looking across the Federal lines, we 
could see the spires and the smoke of the city, which was not 
more than four miles away. 

The writer was one of the detail to remain in the field hospi- 
tal and, of course to be made a prisoner, as the Federals were 
all around us. 

There were, a few of our regiment left, wounded so badly they 
could not be taken away. While we did not like the idea of 
being prisoner, duty to our boys, and obedience to orders, we 
remained willingly. Capt. Paul McDermott and Sergt. John 
Richards died, and we helped bury them; one on the hill-side, 
the other near the creek a hundred yards below the mill. All 
of our regiment who were left in the field hospital died, but we 
remained longer to help, and do what we could, in relieving the 
suffering of the Federals who were wounded. 



130 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

Col. Walker, Capt. McDermott and Sergt. Richards were 
members of the Presbyterian Church. Col. Walker was a brave 
and noble man, to love him was but to know him. We never 
saw him do anything unbecoming a Christian, nor did we ever 
hear him utter a word that could not have been spoken in the 
presence of ladies. We were with him all the time on the 
march, and in camp our tent was pitched near his. 

Capt. McDermott was a stern, but not overbearing man, he hated 
any one who shirked duty, and admired bravery and fortitude 
wherever found. On every battlefield were found those who 
stirred our sympathies to the -very bottom, both of our friends 
and our foes. Here we found a Federal boy, not more than six- 
teen years old, who had both eyes shot out, was wounded in the 
body and in the leg. He was brought back with our wounded 
and had been laid on the ground to await his turn for attention. 
We found him lying out in the hot sun and placed him in the 
shade again, gave him water and made him as comfortable as 
the surroundings would permit. We found in our conversation 
that he was the only son of a widow and had been in the army 
only three months. He had left home for the excitement and 
novelty of a soldier's life, and had gotten more than he expected. 
With a trembling voice, his heart bleeding with sorrow, he told 
me he wished he had never left home and mother, for now he 
would never see them again. He belonged to an Illinois regi- 
ment; poor boy, he had our sympathy. We remained here four 
or five days, and having no more of our regiment to look after, 
we asked our surgeon, Dr. Dulaney, permission to return to our 
regiment. He had no objection if we were willing to take the 
risk of are-capture. We took the risk, flanked both the Feder- 
als and our own lines, and reached the city and our own regi- 
ment in safety. We give a few of the killed and wounded of 
our regiment in this engagement : 

KILLED. 

Col. F. M. Walker. 

Duitt, Tom Co. A Sharp, Lieut, J. F Co. F 

Templeton, John " " Rhea, Robert J " G 

Long, John " " Ferris, Sam 

Yorkely, Mike " C Chamberlain, George.. 

Kennedy, Thomas " " McDermott, Capt. P. H. " : 

Kline, Thomas " " Richards, Sergt. John. 



ABOUND ATLANTA. 131 







WOUNDED. 








Co, 


A 


King, William 


Co 


c 


Brabson, Lieut. T.M. 


u 


B 


Colville, Lieut, R.W.. 


i i 


D 


Ramsey, Johu 


4 4 


it 


Dyer, D. H 


4 4 


4 4 


Epperson, John 


4 4 


1 1 


Vestal, Billie 


4 4 


E 


Fulkerson, George... 


" 


l 4 


Waggoner, George . . . 


4 4 


G 


Hodge, James 


4 4 


4 4 


Godsey, C. W 


4 4 


4 4 


MeCr 


eary, 


H.. 


Co. G 







We lay around Atlanta in the ditches, fighting more or less 
every day, until the latter part of August, The writer had to 
go into the city and to the depot frequently. We were at the 
depot one morning when the Federals shelled the city, seemingly 
with the intention of setting it on fire, for several buildings were 
set on fire, one large brick building filled with cotton, and it 
burned for weeks. In the vicinity of the depot the shells fell 
thick and fast, killing and wounding a great many. There were 
two brick depots, with a space of fifteen feet between them. 
We were standing in this space and a shell burst a few feet 
over our head, the pieces falling all around us, two or three of 
which struck the floor within an inch of our feet, but we were 
not hurt. 

After the battle of the 22nd of July, Gen. Cheatham came 
back to his old division and Gen S. D. Lee took command of 
Hood's old corps. The Tennesseeans were glad to get their old 
commander again, and Gen. Cheatham seemed equally as glad, 
for there was an affection between he and his men that was 
sweet to enjoy. Gen. Sherman had now nearly encircled At- 
lanta. He had sent the sixteenth and seventeenth army corps, 
under Dodge and Blair respectively, around west of the city to 
Ezra Church. Hood sent Lee to attack them, and if nothing 
more, to hold them from joining Logan and Ranson, whom 
Hardee had gone to attack near Jonesboro. Lee, on the 28th 
of August, attacked Logan at the Ezra Church, but failing to 
drive him back, fell back himself and joined Hardee at Jones- 
boro. Here Hardee, at 3 : 30 in the evening of September the 1st, 
attacked Logan and Ranson. The fight was stubborn and heavy, 
lasting until after dark, when, seemingly, by mutual consent, the 
two armies began to retire, and moved in the same direction 
and almost on the same road. We moved about two miles and 
went into camp; the two armies, it might be said, -, occupied the 
the same field and the same skirt of woods, at the same time. 



132 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

A STRANGE SCENE. 

It was after dark when the writer left the battlefield. We 
were on the field with the litter corps when the regiment began 
moving from the scene of action; we moved with it and left the 
others of the litter and surgeon's corps behind. Halting about 
two miles from the battlefield, the entire corps of Hardee went 
into bivouac. The whole country was full of soldiers and soon 
fires began to kindle up, and the Confederates did not have half 
the fires that were made. You could not tell where the fires of 
the enemy ended, nor where those of the Confederates began. 
Dr. Dulaney and two of the litter corps, who came up after the 
regiment had moved, had quite an experience in finding our 
command. The first regiment he came to in camp, nearly all 
the men were lying down, with but few fires visible anywhere. 
The Doctor inquired whose regiment it was, and was astonished 
to learn that it was the seventeenth Ohio, not betraying his as- 
tonishment, the Doctor said, "boys, our regiment is further on." 
Turning from this regiment he. went on further and inquired 
again, but to learn that it was the fourth Indiana. Now he was 
puzzled to know which way to go. Seeing a line of fires but 
two hundred yards to the right, he made for these, and found 
them to be those of the Old Nineteenth. The Federals and our 
men took rails from the same fence, filled canteens from the 
same branch, at the same time, almost touching heads, as each 
leaned from opposite sides. Your humble writer was standing 
by a small camp fire just started up, alone, when a soldier came 
up, and threw from his shoulder a load of rails. He was a Federal 
soldier. There we were, the Blue and the Gray looking at each 
other; neither spoke, and he returned in the direction from 
which he came. Some of the Old Nineteenth stepped across to 
the Federal camp fire, which was about one hundred yards from 
ours, and borrowed some picks and shovels to dig rifle pits, and 
when done returned them. About midnight Gen. Hardee rode 
into our camp and asked Arthur Fulkerson, of Co. K, pointing 
to some camp fires about one hundred yards off in a skirt of 
woods, whose command it was. Arthur told him they were the 
enemy. Gen. Hardee thought he must be mistaken. "No," 
said Arthur, "our men have just been over there and borrowed 
some picks and shovels and have returned them." Arthur said 
he would go over and see whose command it was. He went 
over there but did not return. He was captured. Gen. Hardee 



AROUND ATLANTA. 133 

then knew that they were the enemy. The camp fires revealed 
the true situation, but the Confederates were the only ones who 
found it out. The Federals had formed around us a horseshoe, 
unintentionally, with an opening of about four hundred yards, 
and through which, about two o'clock in the morning Gen. 
Hardee moved his command with as much silence as ever men 
moved. We slipped out from the grasp of the enemy so 
silently that they did not know we were gone until daylight. 
So Arthur Fulkerson saved Hardee. 

This was the last battle of the campaign, and while Hardee 
was fighting here at Jonesboro, Hood was hurrying everything 
away from Atlanta, and leaving Atlanta he joined Hardee and 
Lee below Jonesboro, at Lovejoy's station, where we remained 
for several days, not far from our last battle ground. We lost 
out of our old regiment several killed and wounded. We 
mourned the loss of the many battle-scarred veterans of the old 
Nineteenth Tennessee, who found a quiet resting place in this 
campaign. Many are the places hallowed by the life-blood of 
the noble Confederate veterans. Just how many were left by 
the way side since we left Dalton I leave to the many silent 
mounds to tell. The Dalton and Atlanta campaign was now 
ended. Sherman returned to Atlanta and for a few days and 
nights not a sound of cannon or musketry was heard. There 
was a feeling of sweet rest, for the present at least, from the 
toil and strife of battle. All the regiments were so reduced by 
the ravages of war, that they were but mere skeletons, and in 
order to make them more respectable there was ordered a con- 
solidation of regiments. In the consolidation of ours with oth- 
ers, there were three in one, the Nineteenth, Twenty-fourth and 
the Forty-first, and the new regiment was commanded by Col. 
James D. Tillman, but kept its place in Strahl's brigade. So 
it ran throughout the whole army, yet neither regiment lost its 
identity or individuality. On the 19th of September the army 
left Jonesboro and moved to Palmetto, on the Atlanta and West 
Point railroad, where, after fortifying, we sat down for a much 
needed rest. 

The following were wounded in the Jonesboro fight : Isaac 
Brown and C. C. Majors, Co. D; J. J. Johnson Co. G; N. 
Richards and Andy G. Johnson, Co. K; J. J. Johnson died 
soon after he was wounded. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



VISIT OF PEESIDENT DAVIS. 



THE young Confederacy had evidently reached a crisis in its 
struggle for existence. The clouds that had been gathering 
to obscure the future prospects of the Confederacy, were be- 
coming more dark and portentious. At this juncture of affairs 
President Jefferson Davis, Howell E. Cobb and others paid the 
army of Tennessee a visit. Something had to be done to infuse 
new life and vigor into the men. Speeches were made by the 
President, Cobb and others. While Cobb was speaking, pour- 
ing his sweet sounding words in our ears, a private halloed out, 
"a shell or two would knock all the sweetness out in less than 
no time." The hope of success in the minds of the soldiers 
had begun to fade and grow dim. Davis and his associates, like 
the weary pilgrim, "Could tarry but a night." 

Soon after the departure of Davis, Gen. Hardee resigned 
his place in the army of Tennessee, and took command else- 
where. Rumors were rife in camp, as to what was coming 
next. Some said Hardee resigned because Hood was in com- 
mand of the army of Tennessee, but this proved to be a mis- 
take. Hurried changes were made in all the regiments and 
companies. Capt. J. H. Hannah of Co. F., was made Major of 
the regiment in place of Maj . Deaderick who had been promoted 
to Colonel of another regiment, and First Lieutenant J. M. 
Sims was made Captain of the Company. Maj. Hannah had 
been Captain of Co. F ever since its organization in June 
1861, kind hearted and esteemed by all, he made a good sol- 
dier and gained the respect of his superior officers. Soon as 
the vacancy was made by the promotion of Maj . Deadrick to be 
Colonel of another regiment, Capt. J. H. Hannah was made 
Major of the Old Nineteenth, October the 10th, 1864, which of- 
fice he held until the close of the war. 




MAJOR J. H. HANNAH. 

Major Hannah was born in Polk County, Tenn., May 1838. With his 
father and four brothers, he joined Company F, of the Old Nineteenth Con- 
federate regiment, and in the organization of the regiment in June. 1861, he 
was elected Captain of the company. In the reorganization of the regiment 
in 1862, he was re-elected Captain, which position he held until October 1864, 
when he was promoted to Major of the regiment, which he held until the close 
of the war, and surrendered with the regiment in 1865. 



VISIT OF PRESIDENT DAVIS. 135 

He was in line for promotion December 1863, but his com- 
pany demurred, so he did not present his claim until in October 
1804. Maj. Hannah came of patriotic stock. His father, who 
was seventy-nine years old, joined Company F., of the Nine- 
teenth Tennessee regiment at its formation, with five sons, one 
of whom was Maj, J. H. Hannah, but his father being- too old 
did not remain. 

Lieutenant J. A. Kimbrough was made Captain of Company 
H., in place of Capt. Paul McDermott, who was killed at the 
battle of 22nd of July. Lieut. B. F. Hoyle, of Co. H., resigned 
and went to other fields of service. The boys hated to give 
Lieut. Hoyle up, they loved him, for he had been with them so 
long. 

September the 28th, the army was again put in motion, and 
our faces this time turned towards Tennessee, but when we 
would reach the goal of our anxious hearts, was hidden in the 
womb of the future. 

On our way we passed to the left of Atlanta, and not far 
from Kennesaw mountain which stands with towering head, 
keeping lone vigil over the thousands slain in battle around 
her. The record of the battle fought here will be handed down 
the coming ages, keeping prominent in history, this now fa- 
mous mountain. As we gaze sadly from the distance it seems 
we can still see the lingering smoke of battle, and hear the 
sound of the sanguine strife. The enemy being in Rome, we 
flanked that city and reached Dalton on the 14th. The Federals 
had built a fort on the hill east of the city, and it was garri- 
soned with colored troops and had four brass guns which looked 
viciously on all around. We soon took them in and all they 
had. They had also built a block house up in the gap at Rocky 
Face, and had in it a small force. Gen. Bate moved on them 
and demanded a surrender, but they not knowing who made 
the demand, refused, thinking perhaps it was a hurriedly pass- 
ing scout, who would soon go on. But when Bate's division 
came in sight and had turned a battery on them and began knock- 
ing down their fortress they quickly gave in. 

We remained here but two days and nights. Leaving here, 
we passed through the Gap at Rocky Face and turned westward 
to Lafayette through which we passed, and moved on to Gads- 
den, Alabama, about sixty-five miles from Dalton, Georgia, 
which place we reached October the 21st, where we rested two 



136 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

or three days, aud where we drew clothing and rations, and 
having no use for money, we did not draw any. Leaving Gads- 
den, we turned our course northwest and headed for Decatur on 
the Tennessee. 

Soon after leaving Gadsden we struck Sand mountain, a 
dreary and desolate looking country. After a march of seven- 
ty-five miles we reached Decatur on the 17th, where we found a 
garrison of ten thousand, well fortified, with a fort command- 
ing every approach to the city. Hood did not attempt an at- 
tack on the fort, as it was not his intention, nor could he have 
taken it without considerable loss of men and considerable loss 
of time, which just now seemed to be of more value than men. 
And too, if he had taken the place without the loss of a single 
man, it would have been of no importance to the army. We 
remained here, however, two or three days, with pickets 
around the town, from the river above to the river below. 

Our division was encamped in an open field of nearly a mile 
in extent, and directly in front of their fort, and near a small 
cemetery. 

During the evening of the second day, we (the writer) went 
out to our vidette post. The rifle pits were just large enough 
for three men, and wereout just in front of the fort which stood 
on an elevation over-looking an open field between us, and not 
seeming more than four hundred yards away. Now and then a 
cannon shot from the fort would pass over us. As we returned 
from the vidette post, and had gotten about thirty or forty yards 
away, there came a shot from the fort which was aimed at us to 
hurry us on. It struck the ground about a hundred yards be- 
hind us, bounding and striking the ground about every forty 
yards, passed us about ten feet to our right and went on bound- 
ing to the woods. 

The army leaving here, we counted the cross-ties on the rail- 
road to Tuscumbia, a distance of forty miles, and at the foot of 
Mussle Shoals, which we reached November the 1st. Here Gen. 
Hood expected to find ample supplies of all kinds for the cam- 
paign into Tennessee, the pontoons across the river ready, 
everything complete so he; could hurry on without delay. But 
no supplies were there, and no visible signs of any coming. Gen. 
Beauregard had this in hand and had promised all necessary 
supplies, but had utterly failed, this failure was certainly against 
Hood and the Army of Tennessee. While we were here, tired and 



ABOUT FLORENCE. 137 

willing to rest, we were more willing to go on to the goal of our 
ambition, once more to be on Tennessee soil. No one but 
Beauregard knew why everything was not ready and waiting 
for "Hood. After days of anxious, if not painful waiting, on 
Sunday morning, November 15th, we moved out with banners 
flying and bands playing and crossed the river with a shout. 

We passed out through Florence and beyond one mile and 
pitched our camp, where we remained until the 21st, still wait- 
ing for Beauregard's supplies. We were in need of clothing as 
well as commissary and ordnance supplies. So poorly clothed 
were we, that we could not but expect to suffer, as the winter 
had set in with a perfect blizzard, with snow and sleet. The 
order was to move and we must obey. 

We started out from Florence early in the morning of No- 
vember 21st, one of the coldest days of the winter, in rain, sleet 
and snow. The wind blew almost a hurricane in our faces, and 
with the snow, was almost blinding. All day long we plodded 
through this storm, so slow we could hardly keep warm. Late 
in the evening we halted for the night, passing it without rest 
or comfort to onr weary and cold bodies. We had gone only 
about twelve miles, and a hard day's travel. The next morning 
the storm had not abated, but had grown in intensity; yet on 
we went, combatting wind, sleet and snow. The second night 
we went into camp about eighteen miles from our camp the 
night before, filed into the woods after dark. The snow and 
ice covered everything, and we had a jolly time in starting our 
fires. The trees, being frozen, fell quickly and with a crash 
and a rattle, falling among the men, which kept them on the 
lookout all the time from being caught beneath them. It is 
needless to say, we began our third day's march under difficul- 
ties and hardships, and we camped that night in four miles of 
Waynesboro. 

Hood left Florence with three army corps. The first corps 
under Gen. Cheatham, the second corps under Gen. Stuart, and 
the third corps under Gen. Lee. Maj.-Gen. Brown had Gen. 
Cheatham's old division, composed of four brigades. The 
roster of the Army of Tennessee at that time is given on the 
following page. 



138 



THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 



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AT COLUMBIA. 139 

Ou November the twenty-eighth, we reached Columbia, 
Tennessee, and found the enemy in considerable force, about 
thirty thousand strong, and were entrenched on the South bank 
of Duck river. As soon as Hood approached Columbia, the 
Federals hastened from Pulaski, and other points around in 
close proximity to Columbia, and showed a stubborn opposition 
to Hood's further advance into Tennessee. The first evening 
we reached Columbia, all of Hood's men did not get up, and 
but little of his artillery. The enemy would have crossed to 
the north side of the river that night but it was too stormy, and 
neither army could, or did not, make any move whatever. Hood 
did not attack the enemy, but at the gray dawn of the next morn- 
ing, the head of Cheatham's column accompanied by Gen. Hood, 
could have been seen crossing the river six miles above Colum- 
bia, and making with rapid strides for Spring Hill. From Co- 
lumbia to Spring Hill there were two parallel roads not more 
than half a mile apart, one an old abandoned dirt, the other a 
pike. The enemy, as early as we, pushed out on the main pike, 
while we took the old dirt road. Now it was nick and tuck 
which would get to Spring Hill first. We assumed the fox trot 
the greater part of the way. Gen. Forest, who had beaten us to 
Spring Hill, had entered the town, but was being driven back 
by Wagner's and Kimball's division of the enemy, who had pro- 
ceeded Forrest but a very short time, when we arrived. Cle- 
burne's division was the first to engage the enemy, and as 
Brown's division, to which the Old Nineteenth belonged, came 
up, the enemy retired towards Franklin. We remained here 
all night. 



CHAPTER XX. 



ON TO FKANKLIN. 



THE next morning, November 30th, we moved out for Frank- 
lin, Tenn. Stewart's corps was in front, followed by 
Cheatham; and Cheatham's corps moved in the following 
order: Brown's division, Cleburne's and Bate's; then came 
Johnson's division of Lee's corps. The other divisions of Lee's 
corps were behind. About one o'clock that evening we reached 
the Winstead hills, a ridge crossing the Columbia pike at right 
angle, about one and a half miles out from Franklin. 

From these hills to the town was an open plain, with noth- 
ing to obscure the vision save here and there small clusters of 
shrubbery. The ground is a little undulating, with a gradual 
incline up to the works of the enemy. Out in the front of the 
enemy, and about the center of our right wing, had been a 
locust thicket, but this was now cut down and made into an 
abatis. Running through this plot of ground were hedge fences. 
The 23d Army Corps of the Federals, under Schofield, held this 
part of their line from the river above town to the point where 
the Carter creek pike enters. Their right was held by the 
Fourth Army Corps, under Kimball. 

Schofield had thrown a heavy line of infantry, strongly en- 
trenched, out from their main fortification, and a skirmish line 
still beyond this. Their main fortification stood on the highest 
elevation, extending from behind the Carter House, on past the 
Gin house towards the river. This fortification literally bristled 
with cannon. The enemy had a battery on the opposite side 
of the river that not only enfiladed our whole line, but raked 
our entire field. Now in the face of all this glittering belt of 
bayonet and cannon waited to be turned loose upon us, Hood 
advanced without the least faltering. In the back yard of the 
Carter House, between it and the enemy's works, stood a locust 
thicket. Near the pike, and between the dwelling and the 



ON TO FRANKLIN. 1 41 

works, stood an old one-story frame house, and in the rear of 
the dwelling was a brick smoke house. Across the pike stood 
the Gin house, some fifty yards from the dwelling house. 
The Harpeth river makes a horse-shoe bend around the town, 
and there are three pikes going into the city, the Lewisburg, 
Columbia, and the Carter creek pike. On the Winstead hills, 
Hood halted and formed his lines between the hills and the 
town out in the open plain. Stewart formed on the right, his 
right resting on the Lewisburg pike. Cheatham formed with 
Cleburne's and Brown's divisions on the left of the Columbia 
pike, while Bate moved further to the left and formed line near 
the Carter creek pike. Often, upon the eve of battle, is ob- 
served in the action of brave men something never before no- 
ticed. Something which seems to spring from an innate feeling 
of coming danger; a presentiment of disaster or death. 

While we were yet on the Winstead hills, resting and await- 
ing orders, our Brigadier Gen. Strahl rode off to himself, dis- 
mounted, spread his blanket on the ground and reclined as if 
worn out, having nothing to say to any one, save as his order- 
lies received and brought reports. No one ever noticed this in 
Gen. Strahl before. He was never reticent, but free to ap- 
proach and was communicative. We understood afterwards 
Gen. Strahl remarked to two other Generals that he would be 
killed in this engagement. This feeling of dread, or what ever 
you may call it, does not come from any feeling of cowardice, 
for if it had, Gen. Strahl could have made sufficient excuse, 
plausable and honorable; but. no, true as steel, he was ready, 
if to be offered up. 

As we moved from the top of the hill to form line of battle, 
Gen' Strahl, as he rode by the Old Nineteenth Tennessee regi- 
ment, remarked in our hearing, "boys, this will be short but 
desperate." These were the last words we ever heard Gen. 
Strahl utter; he was killed. 

THE BATTLE. 

The command "forward march" was given. The men 
moved off with little care, seemingly, as to the fate awaiting 
them. What a grand and imposing sight the army presented 
this beautiful autumnal evening, with the golden haze of an In- 
dian summer, with not a cloud to obscure the sun as it shone 
upon the field. As the line advanced, Cleburne's division moved 



142 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

to the right and across the Columbia pike. Of Brown's divis- 
ion, Gordon's brigade changed from the right to the left flank, 
which placed Strahl's brigade on the pike joining Cleburne's, 
and running around back of the Carter house. Walthall and 
Loring on the right encountered a deep cut in the railroad which 
necessitated a flank movement under a heavy and destructive 
fire from the enemy's eighteen guns across the river, which 
raked Stewart's whole line. With Cleburne on the right of the 
Columbia pike, Cheatham's corps moved forward and soon the 
whole line was engaged, and charged with that characteristic 
yell of the Southern soldier. Brown and Cleburne overwhelmed 
Lane's and Conrad's brigades, captured several of their men, 
driving them from their advance line over their main works, 
also driving Ruger's and Reilly's commands, and reached their 
main ditches in front of the Carter house and Gin house. Gen. 
Gordon, who was on the left of Brown's division, penetrated 
the the main line of the enemy with a part of one brigade, and 
was captured. Gist's brigade, although encountering a locust 
abatis, succeeded in reaching the ditch in the rear and around 
the Carter house. Strahl's brigade gained the ditches in front 
of the Carter house with the Old Nineteenth resting immedi- 
ately on the pike, while Carter's brigade reached the ditches 
between Strahl and Gist, also around the Carter house. 

Granberry, Govan and Polk carried the works from the 
pike around and beyond the Gin house, and drove two Ohio 
regiments from their ditches, capturing two guns and turned 
them upon the routed regiments. French's division charged, 
and carried a part of the enemy's works held by Reilly, in 
which Sear's brigade was almost annihilated, torn and mutil- 
ated in the assault, in which Col. Witherspoon of the 36th Miss., 
lay dead close by the captured artillery. Gen. Cockrell, with 
two wounds, fell on the field, and Col. Gates assuming com- 
mand of his brigade, almost immediately had one arm terribly 
lacerated, and wounded in the other. Yet, strange to say, even 
after this, this iron nerved Missourian sat on his horse, with 
both arms hanging useless, and gave command in the midst of 
this storm of shot and musketry, while one led his horse. In 
the mean time, further on to our right, Walthall and Loring' s 
divisions approached the ditches and became entangled in an 
osage orange abatis. Casemant's Federal brigade in front of 
Walthall had the improved repeating rifles, and well provided 
with artillery, besides the help from the battery across the 



THE BATTLE. 143 

river. It seemed Walthall had to fight Death, Hell and the 
Devil and each had the advantage of him. Walthall had two 
horses killed under him, and each time mounted a horse be- 
longing to one of his staff who lay dead around him. The en- 
emy poured into Walthall and French such a constant fire, 
that their line, held by Casemant's men, seemed a fringe of 
flame. Here, in this charge Gen. Quarles fell mortally wound- 
ed, and around him lay all his staff, dead. A captain, as rank- 
ing officer, took command of the brigade. Walthall reached 
the enemy's ditches but could not hold them, on account of 
his thinned ranks, and under such a fire. Adam's, Feather- 
ston's and Scott's brigades of Loring's division assaulted Stile's 
position, which was well fortified and was well defended. 
Here, General Scott was wounded, and General Adams was 
killed, also his horse, both falling on the breast works. Lor- 
ing's division could not hold their ditches, and in falling back, 
Col. Dyer of the 3d Miss, and many others were left in the 
ditches dead. Coming back to Cleburne, we found that the en- 
emy were not long in reoccupying their line made vacant by 
the repulse of the two Ohio regiments. Gen. Cleburne, in a he- 
roic attempt to dislodge them again, and take the works, fell 
in front of the sixteenth Kentucky regiment, he and his horse 
falling upon the breast works but a short distance from the 
gin-house. The conflict raged with intense fury. The enemy 
could, and no doubt did, every moment renew their strength, 
while our lines were being rapidly diminished. So stubborn 
was the resistance around the gin-house, that the two contend- 
ing forces fought with bayonets and clubbed guns. On our left, 
Strahl, who was on the pike and joining Cleburne, held the 
ditches, and so did the rest of Brown's division hold their 
positions, while the battle went on fierce and bloody. Not only 
our brigade, but Brown's division stuck to the ditches, and 
fought with the desperation of mad tigers, and were being shot 
down like wild beasts. The works, going east or towards the 
river, after crossing the Pike turned down, forming a right an- 
gle, so as to put our regiment and brigade under an enfilading 
fire of the enemy, and also that of Gist and Carter. The fol- 
lowing diagram will show the position we were in. 




French 



144 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

Strahl's and Gist's men not only caught the fire from the 
front but from across the Pike; and the Old Nineteenth Tenn, 
regiment being right on the pike, caught most of the deadly 
bullets. Of Brown's division, Gist and Carter were already 
killed, and Gordon captured. This Carter house was the home 
of the Gen. Carter that was killed, and who died in his own 
yard. His wife and children were in the basement of the house 
during the battle. The works here in front of us were so high 
the men could not scale them without help. Gen. Strahl 
helped one of the Old Nineteenth upon top of the works, when 
he was shot, and fell over on the side of the enemy. Then 
another, when he too was shot, but the General held on to him 
and pulled him back. Tom Alexander of Co. H, son of Dr. 
Alexander of Athens, Tennessee, said, "General help me up." 
"No," replied Gen. Strahl, "I have helped my last man up on 
the works to be shot in my hands." Soon after this Gen. 
Strahl was killed, and followed quickly by all his staff, who fell 
one upon the other. 

Bate's division, on our left, had been putting in good work. 
He assaulted the enemy's works, was met with a heavy fire, 
both of artillery and musketry. He lost heavily in killed and 
wounded. Generals Smith and Jackson were captured. Cle- 
burne's division, of Cheatham's corps, and French's division, of 
Stewart's corps, notwithstanding the desperate assault they had 
made, and the terrible loss of life they had sustained, did not 
lose their morale, but again renewed the attack and made a 
desperate effort to dislodge the enemy, who had been rein- 
forced, and were playing havoc with our men. In this charge 
Gen. Cranberry was killed, and his brigade was driven back 
with considerable loss, and Sears and Cockrell's brigades were 
almost destroyed. Walthall again renewed the attack, and 
was repulsed, leaving many of his men dead and wounded in the 
ditches. Loring again assaulted the works in front of him, in 
which Scott and Adams received a destructive fire from the bat- 
teries across the river, and a fearful one from his front. 

Our whole right was again driven back, and this time did not 
renew the attack. On our left Brown and Bate held the works 
they had taken at first, and could not be driven out of them, 
although they were under a most galling and terrific fire all the 
time. 

Soon after Generals Gist, Carter, and Strahl were killed, 



THE BATTLE. 145 

Gen. Brown fell severely wounded. A little after dark, John- 
son's division of Lee's corps, who had just arrived, and for the 
first time, charged the enemy's works to the left of Brown. 
This division moved forward in the dark, and stumbling over 
men who lay dead and wounded on the field over which they 
passed, stormed the works, and the battle was renewed again, 
swelling the death roll of a sanguine fight. This division went 
into the fight bull-dog fashion, to drive the enemy or die in the 
attempt. 

In this assault Generals Johnson and Managault fell, se- 
verely wounded, while Sharp's, Brantley's and Dea's brigades 
suffered severely, and Johnson's division was driven from the 
ditches. This was the last assault, but now and then an occa- 
sional volley was heard, until ten o'clock at night, when the 
enemy abandoned Franklin. 

The Old Nineteenth certainly went through the furnace to-day, 
and, if I may be allowed the expression, heated seven times 
hotter than ever before. She withstood not only almost galling 
fire from her front, but a destructive enfilading one from her 
right, and but a few yards away. 

Can too much be said of this grand and noble old regi- 
ment? True as steel and as sensitive to duty as the needle 
is to the North pole, she could be, and always was, relied 
upon when special and hazardous work was to be done. Dur- 
ing the battle, Lieut. Frank H. Hale, of Company. H, suc- 
ceeded in scaling the works and crawled about twenty feet 
inside the Federal lines to the frame house mentioned hereto- 
fore, that stood in the yard of the Carter house, where he was 
killed, filled with bullets from the guns of his own regiment. 
Serg't Lum Waller, of Co. H, scaled the works and took shel- 
ter behind the brick smoke house, just in the rear of the dwell- 
ing, where he was wounded, and also Lieut. W. W. Etter, of 
Co. K, succeeded in getting upon the works and jumped down 
among the Federals. They took]off their hats to him, but did not 
take him prisoner, when he, too, reached the brick smoke house, 
and remained unhurt until the Federals retreated, and he re- 
joined the regiment. One other incident I will mention. Zack 
Smith, of Co. A, crawled to the top of the works from which 
he repeatedly fired, when Gen. Strahl said to him, "Zack, my 
brave fellow, I will not forget you for this." But our loved 
General died soon after in the works. Arthur Fulkerson, the 



146 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

Sergeant-Major of the regiment, fell in the charge just before 
reaching the works, pierced by sixteen bullets. I might go on 
with others equally as noteworthy, but will desist. This frame 
house that stood in the yard, next morning presented the ap- 
pearance of a sieve, so full of bullet holes. 

In this fearful struggle French lost about sixty per cent, of 
his men, almost annihilating his division. Walthall, in his as- 
saults, was not only repulsed, but almost destroyed. Loring 
was next repulsed, with great loss. Then came Cleburne, who 
in his last and desperate charge at the gin house, lost heavily 
in killed and wounded, was driven back and he and his horse 
were killed, both falling on the works. 

Brown's division, in which the Old Nineteenth filled a con- 
spicuous place, after repeated heroic charges, captured the ditches 
in front of him and held them, notwithstanding the assault was 
made under a heavy fire, the enemy making repeated efforts to 
dislodge him, but he held the ditches to the end. G-en. Brown 
was severely wounded and all his Generals killed, save one, 
and he was captured. Johnson made the last assault but was 
repulsed with slaughter of his men. 

Reader, it makes us sick, now, as we think of that bloody 
scene, that beautiful November evening, and it almost drives 
the frozen current of life back upon the chilled heart. We 
stand aghast as we now think of the battle field of Franklin. 
The angel of death certainly held high carnival that sorrowful 
night in the army of Tennessee. Oh! this one scene of butchery 
will go down the ages in history as a black page in the mem- 
ory of our lost cause. The firing ceased about ten 
o'clock that night and the army bivouaced on the field. As 
soon as it was ascertained that the enemy had left Franklin, 
the infirmary and relief corps were on every part of the field 
with torches, hunting up, and rendering assistance to the 
thousands of wounded and suffering, whose agonizing appeals 
that cold bitter night, were enough to melt with sympathy the 
hardest heart. Gen. Cheatham, as he walked over the field of 
carnage that night, and looked by the glare of the torchlight 
into the hundreds of pale faces, silent in death, in many places 
the dead lying in heaps, and upon the thousands of wounded 
covered with blood, appealing for water and help, he wept, the 
great big tears ran down his cheeks and he sobbed like a child. 
Before him lay not only his boys, as he called them, but his 



THE BATTLE. 147 

Generals, all dead. That noble, kind, big hearted, brave Gen- 
eral, who was loved by all, wept. Yes, and each tear, it can be 
truthfully said, bound his men to him and he to them nearer 
than ever before. 

A veteran army was wrecked on this field of battle, a 
bloody holocaust to the Moloch of war. The dead and wound- 
ed were numbered by the thousands ; the regimental and bri- 
gade organizations were broken up, guns and equipage broken 
and scattered, colors were lying here and there stained with 
the life blood of those who bore them. All these showed plain- 
ly the magnitude of the disaster. The dead and wounded 
marked the field over which the divisions charged. In front of 
the intrenched lines were strewn the bodies of slaughtered he- 
roes, officers and men proving clearly the intense fury of the 
assaults. 

In the intrenchments, captured and held by Strahl's and 
Carter's brigades of Brown's division, the dead lay in heaps, 
and in some places in the ditches were piled seven deep. On 
the dead body of Gen. Strahl fell that of Capt. Johnson and 
Lieut. Marsh, and others fell on them. Regimental and com- 
pany officers were seen supported in an almost upright position 
by the dead who had fallen first. 

HOME AND MOTHER. 

When we crossed the Tennessee river at Florence on our 
way into Tennessee, Gen. Hood promised the boys who lived 
on and near the road we traveled, one or two days, furlough to 
see home and friends from whom they had been absent two 
and three years. After finding the large force of the enemy at 
Columbia, expecting resistance at nearly every point, he re- 
quested the boys to remain contented with their command un- 
til after a certain time, and after we had passed Franklin he 
would grant their leave of absence. As we passed on, many of 
the boys could see the blue smoke away in the distance, curling 
up from the old hearth stone, around which clustered the sweet- 
est associations of their childhood days, and where mother, sis- 
ters, wives and children looked for a happy meeting of loved 
ones again. No doubt, as the brave boys, faithful to their, 
trust, passed the home they loved so well, they felt, and deep 
in the recesses of their hearts, they said, "Mother we will be 
with you, wait. We are coming home to-morrow." 

Little did they then think, that, to them, to-morrow would 



148 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

never come. But the dear old mothers and sisters anxiously 
waited and looked long with weeping- eyes and sorrowful hearts 
for their dear soldier boys who never came. 

"Yes, mother, widows, sisters left alone, 

Are watching for their loved ones glad return; 

While they lie sleeping 'neath a lowly stone, 

Unconscious of the hearts tha^ for them yearn." 

In the fifteenth Mississippi regiment were six brothers, who 
were all killed in this battle ; and perhaps neither one knew of the 
others death, until they met the next morning in eternity. Of 
the slain in battle all were buried long years ago, but will not 
be forgotten for years to come. 

Comrades, .sleep! We meet no more until our tents are 
spread on fame's eternal camping ground. Beyond the sunset, 
beyond the clouds, beyond the stars that shine as suns for other 
worlds, in the home of the soul, we hope to meet again. 

"Then, how sweet it will be, in that beautiful land, ■ 

So free from all sorrow and pain, 
With songs on our lips and with harps in our hands, 

To meet one another again." 

In looking over this sad scene, the question irresistably 
forces itself upon us, who was to blame for all this! Was it 
one of the inexplicable decrees of Fate? These questions may 
never be satisfactorily answered. 

If Hood had flanked Schofield at Franklin and had gone onto 
Nashville, he would not only have put himself between two ar- 
mies, either of which was his equal, and thereby hazard his 
entire army, but he would have cut off alhpossible hope ofjescape. 

Franklin, from a military standpoint, was of no significant 
value aside from the fact that the road leading to Nashville led 
through it. As Hood's objective point was Nashville, and as he 
could not go around Schofield, nothing was left him but to 
retreat or storrn the place. Hood was given the army with the 
express injunction to fight. Here, he saw his fearful respon- 
sibility reach its noon-tide. But the brave old General, with 
but one leg and one arm, like the Spartan of old, stood firm in 
.the discharge of what he thought to be- his duty. Had he re- 
treated, his star of glory would have gone down behind a cloud 
to rise no more. 

Jefferson Davis told the truth when he said, "If Hood, by an 
impetuous attack, had crushed Schoheld, with but little loss to 



AFTER-THOUGHTS. 149 

himself, and if Forrest could have carried out his intention in 
capturing Schofield's trains, we should never have heard aught 
against Hood's attack on Franklin." 

Must we say this is all the fate of war! Or is it the display 
of that unseen power, the vis a tergo, that showed its potency 
in the death of Albert Sidney Johnson at Shiloh, and in the re- 
moval of Joseph E. Johnson before reaching Atlanta. There 
was no earthly reason why either of these should have been 
taken away. We do not always see clearly the hand-writing on 
the wall, and attribute too many things to carelessness and ac- 
cident. The why, we will see after awhile. 

A young lady, of Memphis, Tennessee, speaking poetically 
of the battle of Franklin, says: 

"Behind the works looms up the lines of Blue, 

Before, the timbers fallen by cautious hands 
To break the ranks of Gray. 'Twixt these a floor 
To thrash with leaden flail the Southern bands, 
Charge wild with ringing rebel yell 
That flings its piercing echoes on the breeze, 
The men, like Gray stars on the somber field 
, Crash through the crackling limbs of fallen trees. 
And on they move, above the deafening roar 

Of belching guns, the weird yell rings again, 
And in the flash, it seems the gates of hell 

Had yawned wide as they gained the open plain. 
When storms of shot and bursting shell, 

And sweep of hurtling grape, with burning breath 
Pour on the Southern host, undaunted, yet, 
Still facing closer the horrid hail of death. 

'Tis midnight hour, and through the lifting clouds, 
The struggling moonbeams gaze on Franklin's field 
Upon the war-stained corpse of friends and foe 
And weirdly kiss the lips forever sealed." 

Only a few of the names of the killed and wounded could 
be gotten. We lost nearly half of our regiment, about forty per 
cent. 

KILLED. 

Arthur Fulkerson, Sergeant-Major. 

Bowers, James Co. B Knox, George Co. H 

Hutson, Andy " " Hale, Lieut. F. H. . . . 

Morgan, John " C Russell, John 

Knox, W. G " D Looney, Marshall ' 

Bowers, Billie " G Webster, E 



Potts, Edgar 



150 



THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 









WOUNDED. 






Coughlin, Pete. . 

Hale, G. W 

Henry, S. R 

Kelley, W. A. . . . 
Meroney, J. N. . . 

Holley, Wash B. 




C 


0. A 

" D 

4 4 u 
4 . 4 4 

' E 
' G 

4 u 

4 4 I 

' H 


Hicks, Jos. S 

Gunning, Joe 

Bur an, Henry 

Bruner, S. H 

Phipps, Wm. F 

Hipsher, Wm. L 

Waller, Lum 

Grisham, James 

Shipple, Ben 

MeCarty, W. N 
Etter, Lieut. W. W, . 


C( 


). G 

i 4 4 

' K 

4 4 4 
4 4 4 

4 4 4 

4 4 4 
4 4 4 


Mayfield, Jack.'. 
Drake, George. . 
Alexander, Tom 






Wiggins, James. 






t 1 1 


4 4 4 


Robert Ba 
D. C. Wh 


tes, 
aley 


Co. G. Captured. 

4 4 U li 







a 



CHAPTER XXI. 



ON TO NASHVILLE. 



AFTER the dead were buried on the field of Franklin, and 
the wounded cared for in the hospitals, Gen. Hood moved 
on to Nashville. Forrest, with Chamler's brigade of cav- 
alry, moved on the Hillsboro pike, and Buford, with Jackson's 
brigade of cavalry, moved on the Wilson pike. 

These engaged the enemy at Brentwood, but the Federals 
fell back when Lee's corps came up and camped for the night, 
Stewart's corps followed next. Cheatham's corps remained in 
Franklin, until December 2nd, when he too moved on to Nash- 
ville. Hood formed his lines around Nashville, almost par- 
allel with those of the enemy, the evening of the 3rd. 

On this line Cheatham occupied the extreme right, covering 
the line between the N. & C. railroad and the Nolensville pike. 
Lee's corps from Cheatham's left, to and beyond the Franklin 
pike. Stewart's corps joining Lee's left, continued on and 
crossed the Granny White pike. 

The evening of the 3rd, Hood ordered Bate's division of 
Cheatham's corps to Murfreesboro, leaving Cheatham with on- 
ly two divisions, when he took position on the line around 
Nashville. (Hood was criticised for this move on to Nashville, 
and many thought he had not reasoned wisely, and could not 
see what he hoped to gain. But the part of a good soldier is 
not to hesitate and criticise, but obey. ) 

After a few days hovering around scanty fires and gazing 
upon the capital from the red hills east of the city, Gen. Hood 
ordered Bate's division from Murfreesboro to take its place in 
the line with Cheatham. From our position we could plainly 
see the capital and the guns that stood sentinel in the eastern 
yard. The morning of December the 8th rolled around, bring- 
ing one of the coldest days we had experienced in a long time. 
There were sleet, and snow, and ice, and rain; and the driving 



152 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

wind rendered it the more uncomfortable. We were out in the 
open fields on an elevation, without protection from the wintry 
blasts, and were thinly clad— many of us without shoes — with 
nothing whatever to keep our sore and bleeding feet from the 
cold and frozen ground. (The writer was one of these.) 

We were without tents, and with but one old worn blanket 
to each man, with which to cover at night, and our only bed 
the frozen ground, and that covered with ice and snow. For 
days we stood watching the enemy in this uncomfortable plight. 

Ambition, and even life itself, were almost frozen out of 
us. In the midst of all this, we gazed defiantly at the enemy 
in his comfortable quarters, and at the frowning cannon on forts 
Negley, Casino, and Morton, which were waiting like blood- 
hounds held in leash, eager to be turned loose upon us. The 
cold weather had somewhat subsided, when the morning of 
Dec. 15th, dawned, bringing with it a dense fog that rested on 
the hill tops and covered all the plains. 

Thomas, in the early morning, under cover of this fog, 
moved his men and formed his lines before Hood knew he was 
so closely threatened. By nine o'clock the sun had melted 
away the almost frozen fog, and the enemy, under Gen. Stead- 
man, with a division of negro troops, was seen moving on 
Cheatham, who occupied the right of our line not far from the 
Rains house. In the meantime Thomas had concentrated his 
force on our left and was waiting for the fog to blow away. 
Steadman with his dark brigade, in front of Cheatham, came 
up boldly in the charge, but at the first well directed fire of our 
men, seeing so many of their men fall, they turned and made a 
hasty retreat, but were met by a second line of their own men, 
who, with fixed bayonets, forced them to renew the attack, 
with but a repitition of their former effort. Steadman charged 
time and again, but was repulsed each time, and with loss. 
On Hood's left, and beyond Ector's brigade, was Chalmer's di- 
vision of cavalry, with Buckner's brigade of cavalry near the 
river. Walthall had been withdrawn from Stewart's left and 
put into position in the rear of French's division, to prepare 
works on some knolls for cannon and to furnish one hundred 
men for each battery. 

Soon after Steadman' s advance on Cheatham, Smith and 
Wood of the enemy, with Wilson's cavalry closely followed by 



ON TO NASHVILLE. 153 

Schofield, advanced on Stewart. Coleman, who was command- 
ing Ector's brigade, as he fought, kept falling back slowly, us- 
ing every exertion to keep the enemy from turning his brigade 
until he had reached the extreme left of Walthall. As he fell 
back, the sixteenth army corps rushed upon Chalmer and swept 
him away like chaff before the wind, capturing his headquarter 
wagons, baggage train, papers and records. The enemy also 
captured a battery of four guns, on a knoll, with its support of 
one hundred men. The enemy still pressing forward, Stewart 
not being able to check them, they captured another battery 
with all its support from Stewart, and forced Walthall around 
until his line was at right angle with the one he had occupied 
in the morning. Walthall was now behind a stone fence on 
the east side of the Hillsboro pike. Hood ordered Johnson's 
division of Lee's corps to reinforce Stewart at this point, but 
before Johnson arrived the enemy had driven this part of 
Stewart's left from its position, and through the skirt of woods 
between the Hillsboro and the Granny White's pikes. On the 
arrival of Johnson the enemy were driven back and Stewart 
reoccupied the woods, but only for a short time. The enemy 
reinforced and drove our men back, and not only through the 
the woods but beyond and east of the Granny White pike, thus 
turning Stewart's whole left flank, and gaining the rear of 
Walthall and Loring. In this last charge through the woods 
General Sears lost his right leg by a shot from one of Kimble's 
guns, and was captured. The Old Nineteenth under Cheatham 
during all tbis time, had not been idle. She received the first 
impress and shock of the battle of Nashville, and was under 
its fire continuously all day. As soon as the enemy crossed 
the Granny White pike, Cheatham formed in rear of Stewart 
and met his advance and checked him. This put an end to the 
days fighting, night coming on, the two armies settled down for 
the night. During the day Hood was driven back about two, 
or two and half, miles. The weather was very cold and the 
ground frozen. The sharp points of frozen mud rendered it 
difficult, and even painful, for Hood's brave bare-footed men 
to maneuver. Why Thomas did not capture Hood's whole 
army seemed strange to us. While Hood had lost but few of 
his men, he had lost nearly all of his artillery. During the night 
of the fifteenth, Hood formed his lines with his right resting 
on the Overton hills east of the Franklin pike, with Lee occu- 
pying the Overton hills on our right, Stewart in the center, and 



154 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

Cheatham on the extreme left. Cheatham's line ran up to the 
summit of a high knoll known as Shy's hill, and turned South 
at right angle on the top. 

Strahl's brigade rested on the top of this knoll, the Old 
Nineteenth formed the apex of the angle, and turned down the 
southern slope of the hill. Here Cheatham confronted Sehofield's 
and part of Wilson's corps. Oar men threw up breast- works as 
best they could, having no tools with which to work, and the 
ground being frozen. Steadman, with his negro brigades, with 
Post's and Streight's divisions, were in front of Lee this morn- 
ing. Steadman confronted Clayton. During all the early rnorn- 
iug Thomas kept shelling Hood's lines to see how they ran. 

Major Truehart had two guns he had succeeded in bringing 
off the field the day before, and had planted them on a hill in 
the rear of Bate's division. Thomas had part of Smith's corps 
in front of Cheatham, with Sehofield's command extended be- 
yond Cheatham's left, and Wilson's cavalry still farther around 
on our left flank. About nine o'clock in the morning, Thomas 
began moving against Hood on our right, with heavy artillery 
fire, while the greater portion of his army were moving against 
and around our left. Steadman's negro brigade came against 
Clayton, like a black cloud rolling up the horizon, charging as 
if they would tear away everything before them . They came up 
to within a short distance of our lines, but were forced to re- 
turn, leaving a hundred or two dead and wounded on the ground. 
In the charge made by Pettus and Streight, they were repulsed 
with a loss of two or three hundred, and in which Gen. Post, of 
the Federal army, was wounded. 

At the foot of the hill on which Strahl's brigade rested, was 
a corn field about one hundred yards wide. The sun had by this 
time thawed the ground just enough to become slippery and 
sticky. The fight had by this time become general all along the 
whole line, and by noon Thomas had gained the hills command- 
ing the Granny White pike, and drove Cheatham from his posi- 
tion. As Strahl's brigade descended this hill and entered the 
corn field, we were between two fires of the enemy's artillery, 
the shells met and passed each other in this field. When our 
lines gave way, our brigade being in this salient point, the Fed- 
erals reached the corn field as we did. There we were, the 
bare-footed, half-frozen Confederates, and the well-shod, stall-fed 
Federals, knocking down the corn stalks — one trying to get 



ON TO NASHVILLE. 155 

away, the other, to catch, but we were not kicking up a dust, 
Several of our boys were captured here. Our color-bearer, 
John Mason, came near losing our colors, a Federal soldier 
grabbed at the colors several times but missed, when Mason 
tore them from the staff and stuffed them in his bosom and rail 
out safely. The Old Nineteenth never lost her colors in battle, 
tattered and torn by bullets in many a fray, it had survived 
them all and was still in the hands of the old regiment to lead 
wherever it should go. 

As we ran through the field, or tried to run, James Havely 
just barely escaped capture by jumping through a hole in a 
rock wall made by a shell, he was almost given out, his feet 
were sore and heavy from the mud clinging to them. Did you 
ever have in your sleep a "night mare?" when something was 
after you and you could not run fast enough! well ours was a 
veritable, wide awake nightmare. Hood's whole left wing was 
driven back. Brown's and Bate's divisions passed through the 
Brent woods hills by an old dirt road, and came into the Frank- 
lin pike just before reaching Otter Creek. Lee fell back when 
the left wing gave away, and Hood formed line again, and we 
bivouaced in two miles of where our line was in the morning. 
Although the left wing fell back through the Brent wood hills 
in some confusion, yet we lay in line of battle within half mile 
of the enemy all night. Thomas could, and ought to have 
captured us that night; he had enough of men to have sur- 
rounded us and either way we might go, meet as many men as 
Hood had. 

Only five or six casualties have we been able to get, B. J. 
Johnson, of Company C, wounded. Capt. Winn Smith, 
Co. C, and Dan Sullivan, of Co. C, captured. Pink Hender- 
son, and W. O. Merony, of Co. E, wounded and captured. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



THE RETREAT. 



AGAIN we start out on another sad retreat. Sad, because 
the Fates have marked it out, in some respects, similar to 
that of the memorable retreat from Fishing Creek, Ky. 
Sad, again, because we will leave behind so many of our com- 
rades, who tramped the rough cold journey into Tennessee 
with us. And sad, too, because of our defeat. On the morn 
ing of the 17th we started out to recross the Tennessee river. 
Gen. Holtzclaw's brigade brought up and protected our rear, 
until we passed Franklin and reached Spring Hill. Gen. Lee 
was wounded about noon of the 17th, in a charge on our rear 
guard, and the next morning Gen. Buckner was wounded and 
captured. At Spring Hill Brown's division of Cheatham's 
corps relieved Holtzclaw, and protected the rear of the army, 
which was continually being pressed and harrassed by Wilson's 
cavalry. The roads were very muddy and all the streams were 
swollen from the recent rains and melted snow. Rutherford's 
creek, when we reached it, was rising rapidly, and when Wil- 
son's cavalry arrived, the creek was so high the cavalry could 
not cross, and was delayed several hours. On reaching Colum- 
bia, Gen. Hood placed Stewart's division in the fort thrown up 
by Gen. Vandorn, to protect the army while crossing Duck 
river. Here Gen. Forrest came up with us, the first time since 
he left for Murfreesboro. Stewart was the last to cross. So 
hard pressed were we by the enemy, that a few of Stewart's 
videttes were captured before they could reach the crossing. 

When the head of Cheatham's command reached the pon- 
toons across Duck river, it met that of Forrest's cavalry. The 
time for Forrest to cross had arrived, and Cheatham should 
have crossed first, but was so hotly engaged with the enemy, 
that he failed to cross at the appointed hour. Forrest insisted 
on his right to cross; Cheatham, on his. Hot words, ensued; 



THE RETREAT. 157 

and all along the line of the Old Nineteenth the cracking of 
guns was heard, and the whispered threat: "if he touch old 
Mars Frank we will shoot him and his command into eternity." 
But this state of things was only for a moment, General Cheat- 
ham crossed, and that was the last of it. 

Thomas was certainly pressing our rear for all it was worth 
with the 4th and the 16th army corps and Wilson's cavalry. 
The safety of Hood's army lay almost wholly in a substantial 
rear guard, and to this end, on the 20th of December, before 
leaving Columbia, Gen. Hood called on Gen. Walthall to 
take charge of a rear guard of infantry, and to give Gen. For- 
rest such support as would enable him to keep back the force 
of the enemy that was following so close upon his heels. 

THE REAR GUARD. 

Gen. Hood told Gen. Walthall, that this rear guard was a 
place of honor, and very great responsibility and peril, and 
that he would not impose it upon him without his consent, and 
told him to pick out of the army such regiments as he thought 
he could rely upon. Hood said the army must be saved if that 
detachment was sacrificed to accomplish it. 

Gen. Walthall replied: that he had never asked for a hard 
place for glory, nor for an easy one for comfort, but would take 
his chances for weal or woe. Gen. Walthall selected the brig- 
ades of Featherston, Palmer, Strahl, Quarles, Ector, Reynold's 
Maney and Smith for this special duty. 

He felt that he could rely upon these if put to the severest 
test of manhood and bravery. And for thorough and effective 
movement he reorganized them into the following brigades : 

Under Featherston— Featherston's brigade, Quarles' brig- 
ade. 

Under Reynolds — Reynolds' brigade, Ector's brigade. 

Under Field— Maney's brigade, Strahl's brigade. 

Under Palmer— Palmer's brigade, Smith's brigade. 

There were eight brigades with an effective force of only 
sixteen hundred (1600.) men, the remnant of the thirty thous- 
and (30,000.) who started out at the beginning of the war. 
Thousands of these sleep to-day on the many battle fields, 
others were in prison, some in hospitals and at home wounded 
and sick. Col. C. W. Heiskell, who had been absent for some 
time on account of wounds received in the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, came to us at Columbia and took command of Strahl's 



158 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

brigade. The Old Nineteenth Tenn., was one of the especially 
chosen regiments, which shows she stood high in the estima- 
tion of the chief officer of the army. The Old Nineteenth Tenn., 
had the audacity of saying just what they pleased to any and 
all, because they could, and did so to Gen. Cheatham (Mars 
Frank as they called him.) The morning of December the 
20th we were standing in line ready to move, when Gen. Hood 
rode up to the head of Strain" s brigade and asked who was in 
command. Col. Heiskell replied, "Col. Heiskell." Gen. Hood 
said, "I want you to stay behind to help Gen. Forrest guard 
my rear till we cross the Tennessee." After passing Col. Heis- 
kell, Gen. Hood, speaking to the men, said: "boys the cards 
were fairly dealt at Nashville and Thomas beat the game." 
James Stevenson of Co. E, standing right under Gen. Hood 
looking him in the face, replied: "yes General but the cards 

were d d badly shuffled." We remained with Forrest the 

rest of the retreat. 

To say we suffered on this campaign does not express it. 
We had poor protection from the cold, and our brave boys 
were almost worn out. Their frost bitten feet were swollen, 
bruised, and bleeding as they marched over the frozen ground, 
many of them bare-footed; certainly a sad condition for an 
army on the retreat, pressed hard by a relentless foe. We were 
just in that condition that a speedy retreat was impossible. 
We were always ready and willing to fight when run upon, or 
when the chip was knocked off of our shoulder. As soon as 
Gen. Hood moved out from Columbia, the Federal Gen. Hatch 
began shelling the city, endangering the women, children, and 
defenseless wounded. 

Gen. Forrest under flag of truce asked Gen. Hatch to de- 
sist, as he was causing suffering upon the innocent end help- 
less. The shelling stopped. The enemy on the night of the 
twentieth crossed Duck river on a pontoon some three miles 
above Columbia, but Hood moved out with perfect confidence 
in his rear guard. Gen. Forrest ordered Gen. Walthall to fall 
back in the direction of Pulaski, and as soon as the enemy had 
crossed the river with all his forces, on the night of the 22nd. 
Walthall ordered Col. Fields with Maney's and Strahl's bri- 
gades to skirmish with him, while the other brigades formed 
a line across the Pulaski pike. The enemy was too strong for 
Fields and he fell back on the line with Walthall. When 




CLARK BREWER. 

Comrade Clark Brewer joined Company I, of the Nineteenth Tennessee 
regiment. Made a good, faithful, brave soldier. He was always at his post 
of duty. He was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, and as soon as he was able 
resumed his post of duty, and fought with the regiment to the end of the war. 
Brave as the bravest, and as sensitive to duty as brave. 



THE RETREAT. 159 

Wood's corps with Wilson's cavalry came up, Walthall fell 
back some twelve miles on the pike, and camped near Mrs. 
Mitchell's in two miles of Linnville where we remained until 
the 24th. From this camp Walthall advanced on the enemy 
towards Columbia, while Forrest watched both flanks. Com- 
ing upon the # enemy about three miles back, quite an engage- 
ment took place. Here, we held the enemy for four hours with 
heavy skirmishing. From this point Walthall fell back to 
Richland Creek, within six miles of Pulaski, where he took 
positiou around the mill. Here, a considerable artillery duel 
was kept up for some time, in which we dismounted two of the 
enemy's guns. The infantry firing was quite heavy, reaching 
beyond that of a heavy skirmish. The enemy crossed the 
creek some distance above us, and aimed to gain our rear, but 
was met by Buford, and part of Chalmer's brigade of cavalry, 
and their flank movements were checked, but not without con- 
siderable fighting, in which engagement Gen. Buford was 
wounded. Gen. Forrest at this time was with Walthall on the 
creek, when a courier came dashing up to Gen. Forrest and 
said, "General, the enemy are now in our rear," to which the 
General replied, "well ding it, aint we in thairn?" It was diffi- 
cult to tell which was the nearest out of wind, the horse or the 
rider. That night at eight o'clock Walthall retired to, and took 
position in, the works that had been hastily thrown up around 
Pulaski. After destroying every thing that could not be gotten 
away, including two trains of cars, at day-light of the 25th we 
fell back again, leaving Jackson's cavalry to hold the place as 
long as he could and on his retiring, burn the bridge. 

Soon after leaving Pulaski we left the main pike and 
encountered roads almost impassable. The rains, freezing, and 
thawing made the ground so soft that our artillery and ord- 
nance wagons moved slowly and with great difficulty. Several 
ordnance wagons were left in an old field through which we 
passed after we left Pulaski. Strain's brigade, just before leav- 
ing the field, halted in the edge of the field but for a moment, 
when a courier came dashing up with this order to Col. Heis- 
kell from Gen. Forrest: "Burn them wagons." Col. Heiskell**' 
had "them wagons burned" before the enemy reached them. 
Although the main body of the army and the army trains had 
several days the start of the rear guard from Columbia, we 
began now to come up with the straggling wagons. The move- 



160 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

ment of our wagon train was so slow, the enemy kept up with 
us easily with their artillery and annoyed us more or less. 
Early in the morning of the 25th, Gen. Forrest ordered Gren. 
Walthall to form on 

Anthony's hill, 

which was about live or six miles from Pulaski, and hold the 
enemy in check until our wagon train could get beyond their 
reach and well on towards the river. The ground on Anthony's 
hill was so broken and the woods so dense that a small body of 
men could be easily hidden. Walthall formed his men so that 
they were completely concealed, with a brigade of cavalry on 
the right and one on the left flank, and sent out a skirmish line 
in front, which the enemy attacked vigorously and drove them 
in, following closely, little dreaming there was a line lying in 
wait for them. As soon as the enemy reached Walthall's line, 
he opened fire upon them from his hidden place with his infantry 
and one battery, which also was concealed, pouring into them 
such an effective fire they could not stand, and retired in con- 
fusion. Our men pushed them closely, capturing a number of 
prisoners and horses and two pieces of artillery and teams. 

They also lost several in killed and wounded. As dark 
came on Walthall again fell back, marching until midnight, 
when he reached Sugar Creek, and camped for the remainder of 
the night, having fought one battle and marched twenty-five miles 
that day. This incident we call to mind of that night's march: 
The Old Nineteenth had several times asked Col. Heiskell to 
mount them and join the cavalry. As we approached Sugar 
Creek at eleven o'olock at night, it was sleeting, raining and 
sloppy, the poor fellows were silent, and all was still save the 
slash and splash of their half-shod feet in that December 
night's slush. The silence, darkness and the gloom felt op- 
pressive. Col. Heiskell called out, "boys, how do you like the 
cavalry." Several replied, "Ah, Colonel, this is not regular 
cavalry." Then some one halloed out, "I think this has been 

pretty d d regular for the past forty months." So when we 

reached Sugar Creek the foot cavalry waded it, the ice-cold wa- 
ter coming up to our waist. 

It seemed that the nearer we came to the river the more 
vigorously we were pressed by the enemy, as as if they were 
determined on bagging their game before it could escape. 
Again we ran upon our wagons, several of which were loaded 



SUGAR CREEK. 1()1 

with ammunition. A part of the teams had been taken to assist 
in hurrying up the pontoon wagons. Before day of the 26th, 
the wagons were pushed on as rapidly as possible. 

SUGAR CREEK. 

Walthall put Reynold's and Field's brigades between the 
two crossings of the creek; Palmer's and Featherstone's bri- 
gades on the south side of the crossing in a strong position. 
The Old Nineteenth, being in Field's brigade, was between the 
two crossings. The fog this morning was so dense you could 
discern an object only a short distance from you, which 
enabled our two brigades to conceal themselves. They 
sent forward a small squad a short distance as pickets. Wil- 
son's cavalry was the vanguard of the enemy and when they 
came upon our pickets they dismounted and commenced skir- 
mishing. The small picket force fell back quickly to our main 
line, the enemy came charging after them, but they ran upon a 
much larger force than they expected, and being met by a ter- 
rible fire from an ambush, turned and fled. 

Reynold's and Field's brigades followed in hot pursuit, and 
the creek being in the way of the enemy our boys captured 
nearly all of the horses of one regiment and a good many pris- 
oners. Our cavalry pursued them for some distance. Colonel 
Heiskell often said that this was the most striking spectacle he 
witnessed during the whole war. Here came the hosts of Fed- 
erals, flushed with victory, in all the pomp and circumstance 
of glorious war. There stood the tattered, scarred and hungry, 
worn remnants of eight brigades, no one of which had over one 
hundred and twenty-five men in them; ( Strain" s brigade had 
only one hundred and twelve men) and yet when the command 
"charge" was given, as one man they sprang at the on-coming 
foe, and with the rebel yell ringing loud above the din of battle 
they swept the finely equipped Federal force from the field. 
This attack was met by such an unexpected and powerful re- 
sistance that it seemed to knock all the enthusiasm out of our 
pursuers and they let us alone. 

From this on they hung on our rear at a safe distance and 
we moved and halted at our leisure. Resuming the march, we 
camped that night within twenty miles of the river. The next 
morning we continued our march to Shoal Creek, which we 
reached and crossed by two o'clock in the evening. Here Wal- 



162 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

thall formed line again, while the cavalry moved on towards the 
river. After midnight of the 28th, Gen. Walthall issued the 
following order : 

Headquarters of the Infantry force of the Rear Guard, 

December 28th, 2 A. M., 1864. 
Circular No. 1. 

Featherstone's brigade will move at once, without further 
orders, across the bridge, to be followed by Field's and then 
Palmer's. Gen. Reynolds will withdraw his command from 
Shoal Creek in time to reach the main line by daylight, leaving 
a skirmish line behind for half an hour. Ector's brigade 
will cover the road until the whole command has passed, then 
he will follow, leaving a skirmish line until the rear of his bri- 
gade is on the bridge. Move with promptness and in good or- 
der. 

By command of Ma j. -Gen. Walthall, 

E. D. Clark, 

Asst. Adj. -Gen. 

So at three o'clock in the morning of December 28th, we 
moved out from Shoal Creek, excepting Reynold's brigade, 
which remained as guard and picket until nearly daylight, when 
he moved out quickly. Gen. Walthall moved on with his three 
brigades and occupied the works covering the pontoon bridge. 
The pontoon spanned the Mussel Shoals at Bainbridge, where 
the water seemed to run fifty miles an hour. The main army 
with its trains, the Artillery and Cavalry, having crossed and 
out of the way, our rear guard began to cross early in the morn- 
ing. Featherston first, Field next, then Palmer, and lastly 
Reynolds. Then Hood's army was again south of the Tennes- 
see river. And only then did we feel relieved from the constant 
pressure of an unrelenting foe. 

At Columbia, as we came out, Nathan Jordan, of Co. C, 
was wounded and captured, and we lost one man killed at Sugar 
Creek. Name we did not get. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



KESULTS AND INCIDENTS. 



IT was just forty-three days from the time Hood crossed the 
river at Florence with his jubilant army on his way into 

Tennessee, until he recrossed at Bainbridge with but a frag- 
ment of his former force. 

These forty-three days were sad ones to Hood and his army. 
In them were crowded the disastrous battle of Franklin and the 
utter defeat and rout of his army at Nashville. As a result he 
lost one Major-General killed, four Major-Generals wounded— 
namely, Cleburne killed; Brown, Johnson, Lee, and Buford 
wounded; and five brigadier-Generals killed — namely, Gran- 
berry, Carter, Strahl, Gist, and Adams. There were nine Brig- 
adier. Generals wounded, viz. : Govan, Sears, Jackson, Gor- 
don, Deas, Cockrell, Quarles, Scott, and Managault, 

Of these, Generals Johnson, Jackson, Deas, Gordon, Smith 
and Sears were captured. He lost nearly one-half of his regi- 
mental officers, and about thirty per cent, of his men; nearly 
one-half of his ordnance train and nearly all of his artillery. 
As to the suffering of the men, none but those who were there, 
can form an adequate conception of what the men underwent in 
this campaign, and with! what fortitude they bore up under it 
all. There were many phases in the soldier's life in this cam- 
paign, amidst its hardships and toils and suffering that were 
amusing, and the many cunning and adroit ways the boys used 
in getting what they wanted. We mention one to show what 
they will do. Clabe Perry, of Co. E, with Lieut. J. Waller, 
leaving Pulaski one evening straggled off the main road the 
army was on, and traveled that eveningto suit themselves. As 
they were passing a log cabin, Clabe espied some leaf tobacco 
hanging in the chimney corner. Going up to the house they 
found no one there but an old woman. During these times, provi- 
sions, especially salt, coffee and sugar, were very scarce, and 



164 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

they who were lucky enough to have these luxuries kept them 
hidden, aud if they should be called for, would be out, and had 
been for months, which was indeed the truth in many instances. 
The old lady had one son often summers, who had then gone to 
mill with a grist of corn, and would be back soon. 

Clabe purchased some of the tobacco, and then inquired for 
sorghum. She said she had some in the smoke-house. The 
Lieutenant and the old lady, went around into the smoke-house 
for the sorghum, and Clabe slipped into the, house, and in his 
prowling, found in the bed a small sack of salt and a pair of 
yellow jeans pants, evidently belonging to the boy, putting 
these under his blanket, he hastened out where the old woman 
and the Lieutenant were measuring sorghum. Clabe said, 
"madam, we have no money, but will pay you for your sorghum 
in salt, as we have more than we can carry." The old woman 
said, "La, me! that is just what I want, I have not had any 
any salt for a month." So Clabe paid the old woman for her 
sorghum with her own salt. 

They wanted meal, and inquired the way to the mill, and 
started out with the expectation of meeting her son, which they 
did. Clabe wanted to buy some meal from the boy, but he refused ; 
Clabe begged, and finally told the boy that he had a pair of 
pants, sent him from home, that were too small, which he would 
give him for a little meal. They traded, and when Clabe took 
out the pants, the boy said, "I have a pair at home just like 
them;" to which Cabe said, "So you may, but two pair of pants 
wont hurt you, as you see they are good ones." 

So Clabe paid the boy for his meal with his own pants. 
Clabe was a daisy! whisky and tobacco he would have, if it were, 
in the country; when in camp, he would kill any rooster that 
dared to disturb and awake his Colonel by crowing; and in line 
of battle, would stand and shoot with the bravest. Late one 
evening, about dark, before we reached the river, our command 
halted for the night. Two of the boys and myself went further 
on, about half a mile, seeking shelter, for it was bitter cold. 
We had plenty of raw bacon and crackers and were not hunting 
anything to eat, only shelter. We came to a house where were 
only four persons, a mother and three children, the youngest 
perhaps four years old. We asked for shelter for the night, 
and she granted our request. We found her cooking lye hom- 
iny, the only thing, and all she had, in the way of provisions. 



RESULTS AND INCIDENTS. 16o 

The night was dark and gloomy, and the bright light from the 
old fire-place looked cheerful to ns, but it revealed a sorrowful 
expression on the care-worn face of the mother, as she prepared 
tlit> last morsel of food for herself and children, not knowing 
from whence the next would come The hominy, when done, 
was put upon the table, and she invited us to partake with them. 
We were not hungry, and did not partake, nor could we, had we 
been. When they were ready to eat we all three emptied our 
haversacks on the table. Soon we lay down upon the floor and 
slept, more soundly and comfortably than for many a night 
gone by. The next morning we felt amply repaid for the rations 
we gave them in the comfortable refreshing rest we had, and 
bidding them adieu, we fell in with our command. 

There were other incidents we could mention ; some amus- 
ing and others sad, but these are sufficient. What a grand 
panorama would one's life present, if it could be photographed 
in one grand review as a whole. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



TUPELO. 



HOOD after crossing the river, moved on to Corinth, Missis- 
sippi. Here we rested for a few days, and while here 
General Hood furloughed many of the men, those from 
Middle Tenn., Alabama, and Mississippi. Although their fur- 
loughs were but for a few days, but few of the men ever re- 
turned to the army again. Our roll calls were now soon over 
with, for but few names were upon each company's roll, and 
the army seemed but a Corporal's guard. From here we moved 
to Tupelo, Miss., starting out in a pelting rain as usual, and 
after a muddy tramp of three days we reached Tupelo on the 
13th of January, 1865. We expected to draw clothing at Cor- 
inth, but there was none for us. Many of us without shoes, 
our clothing ragged and torn, pants hanging in threads at the 
bottom. Some had only a piece of a coat, and the crown of 
their hats all gone, partly the effect of bullets. The bare-footed 
had sore and bleeding feet, and each foot was loth to follow 
the other as they moved. But amidst the ruin and wreck, the 
years of toil and battle had brought, the Old Nineteenth, what 
was left of it, had vitality left to stand erect, and when there 
were posts of danger to be filled, she was always ready to 
respond : ' 'Here am I, send me. ' ' We were proud of the Old Nine- 
teenth Tennessee; proud of her record; and although with worn 
and tattered uniforms, she walked with military step. Here at 
Tupelo we drew clothing and rations, and after a few days rest 
the men presented a new appearance. Here Gen. Hood turned 
over to Gen. Joseph E. Johnson what was left of his army. 
The military career of the venturous and recklessly brave Gen- 
eral was about ended. 

Gen. Beauregard in speaking of Gen. Hood, just after he 
had turned the command over to Gen. Johnson,' in regard to 



TUPELO. 167 

the death of the army of Tennessee, said, "No one seemed 
more keenly alive to the fact, and suffered more from it than 
Gen. Hood himself, and I had not the heart to disgrace him by 
censure, or ordering his removal." 

In the opinion of the writer there was no cause for disgrace 
or room for censure, and we believe it will echo the feeling of 
the army. From the depth of the heart we can but say: "Poor 
Hood, you have our sympathies, our respects and our love." 

GEN. JOSEPH E. JOHNSON. 

Gen. Joseph E. Johnson took command of the army again, 
but it was not the army he turned over to Hood before reach- 
ing Atlanta, It had lost the bloom and vigor of its former self, 
and was now composed of only about eighteen thousand five 
hundred (18.500) infantry, and two thousand three hundred 
(2.300) cavalry. The artillery Hood turned over to Gen. 
Thomas. Soon the men were in a condition to move again, 
Johnson began sending them away by detachments to intercept 
and combat with Sherman again who was some where in North 
Carolina. Cheatham was the last to move, this we did leaving 
the 25th. of January, marching to West Point Mississippi, 
which we reached on the 28th. We remained here three days 
and fared sumptuously each day on hog and hominy and had 
plenty to spare. From here we took the cars for Meridian, 
where we moved out into a swamp to camp. The first night in 
camp the rain flooded us so much that we were forced to 
move out of the water. We left Meridian for Demopilis Ala- 
bama, over an exceedingly rough railroad. The train made 
only six miles an hour. The boys would climb down off the 
cars and run out to a house some times a hundred yards away, 
return, and catch up with the train and climb on again. Pass- 
ing on through Demopilis Feb. 13th, we went on to Selma 
where we rested one day and took boat for Montgomery, arriv- 
ing there at ten o'clock in the morning, and at four o'clock in 
the evening we started for Columbus, Ga., with a great many 
of the boys on a drunk. Zack Smith, whose bravery at Frank- 
lin has been mentioned, stole a mule at Selma and put it on 
board the boat with us and took it with the command to Mont- 
gomery where he sold it for sixteen hundred dollars in confed- 
erate money; and with this money took all the regiment who 
would go, on a big "drunk." 



168 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

At Columbus the ladies gave us a hearty welcome, and 
spread before us refreshments, something that had not been 
done for us for three long years. Leaving here we moved out 
for Macon, which we reached the seventeenth of February, then 
on to Milledgeville the capital of the state. From Milledgeville 
we had to march to Mayfield where we again took the cars for 
Augusta, which we passed through after dark; and leaving the 
cars we passed on out and across the river where we camped 
and remained all day of the twentieth. Leaving here we 
directed our way afoot to Newberry, South Carolina, where we 
formed junction with the rest of the army that left us in Mis- 
sissippi. When we were in Macon, Ga., Lieut. W. B. Miller 
and Sergeant James Havely, of Co. K, got permission to remain 
three days in Macon. And to regain their command they had 
to travel later, earlier and faster than the army. On their way 
they passed through Milledgeville before sun-down, and on out 
from the city some four miles when night came on. They 
halted at a fine country residence, [which they learned after- 
wards was called 

SUNSHINE. 

They called and asked permission to remain over night, 
which was cheerfully granted and they were warmly received. 
They entered the hall and deposited their luggage, which con- 
sisted of a sword, gun and accoutrements, canteens, and 
haversacks, behind the door in the hall. Their haversacks 
were partly filled with meal and in each a small piece of fat 
bacon. They were ushered into the sitting room, which was 
nicely furnished, indeed all the surroundings showed signs of 
thrift, elegance and culture. At first they were entertained by 
a fine stately looking and dignified old gentleman, whose head 
was white from the ripening of many winters, but whose intel- 
lect seemed to be at its zenith. Soon another gentleman came 
in, tall, portly and of commanding appearance, whose physi- 
ognomy portrayed a gigantic mind. In fact the two soldiers 
were impressed "with the idea that the whole house was filled 
with an atmosphere of composure and happiness that they had 
not seen elsewhere. It seemed to them that the ravages of war 
had not reached this home, and that heaven had so marked it, 
that the hand of the destroyer had passed it by, and sought its 
victims mother homes. When bed-time came, the two in uni- 
form learned who their hosts were. The elder of the two, said 
to the other one, "George you must act as high priest to-night." 



SUNSHINE. 169 

Then Bishop Pierce took the Bible and led in family devotion. 
They were at the home of Bishop Pierce, and with him was his 
father, Dr. Lovic Pierce. That night while they slept, Mrs. 
Pierce took their haversacks and emptied them of their meal 
and bacon, and filled them with ham, biscuit, preserves and 
pickles, and put them back in their place. The next morning 
the two soldiers, rising early, left without disturbing the fam- 
ily, and on examining their haversacks were made glad, and 
went on their way rejoicing, feeling that it was good to tarry, 
if but a night, with the people of God. 

Since our entrance into South Carolina, we inarched for 
several days in an almost incessant rain, without a single ray 
of sunshine. All of the streams on the way were swollen, and 
nearly all of which we had to wade. We reached Chester, 
South Carolina, March the 6th, where we rested several days. 
While here, two of the regiment and the writer went out two 
miles to a country residence to have some washing done. We 
had only one shirt each, and had that on, and it dirty. We had 
none to put on while these were being washed. We went to a 
negro cabin in the rear part of the yard, where three old negro 
women were washing, and said, "Auntie we want our shirts 
washed, and have no others to put on while this is being done." 
"La, bless you child," said Aimtie, "don't care for that, jes' 
pull 'em off and sit down, we will wash 'em, and hurry, too." 
During the conversation with old Auntie, we found that same 
feeling of trust and confidence existed here as at home. They 
seemed as solicitous for their young masters who were in the 
Confederate army, and for their return home as any member of 
the household, for as they said, we raised young master from 
baby-hood. They expressed fears of never seeing them again. 

With them slavery had not been abolished. They knew no 
other home but this one, and loved no other. To them it was 
their paradise, and its surroundings were sacred to them, they 
were happy. In the days of slavery there were in almost every 
family trusted servants, who had been raised from childhood 
to do special service in the household of their mistress, and be- 
tween them and not only their masters, but the entire house- 
hold, and especially the white children, there existed a strong 
feeling of mutual affection. There were in almost every family 
those among the number of slaves whom the children called 
Black Mammy, aged women, in whose care and keeping were 
placed the children. 



170 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

Their authority was almost equal to that of the mother, and 
for them the children entertained almost the tender love they 
did for their own mother. To this black mammy the children 
carried their grievances; into her ears their childish stories told, 
and at any time when the children wanted anything they knew 
to whom to go, for they were never turned away empty. Their 
childish hearts were often made glad by a kiss from black 
mammy's lips. No doubt there are many now, who from the 
depths of their heart, pray the blessings of God upon their old 
black mammy, who may be living. Many of the negro men were 
faithful during the war, and when the war had ended were loth 
to give up the home that had sheltered, fed and cared for them 
so long, still remained and worked on, on the old plantation. 
We knew some, who after our Southern homes were occupied 
by Federal bayonets, when the boys from the Confederate army 
slipped in home, would hide them, care for them by carrying 
them provisions, and every comfort, and would lead them out 
safely through the Federal pickets, when they returned to the 
army. 

These are not merely isolated cases, but a few among the 
thousands throughout the South. Pardon us for the digression 
from our shirt- washing. Having given old auntie our shirts, 
we tried to button our coats, so no one could see Ave had no un- 
der garment, but our coats did not meet the emergency by a 
good deal; we could fasten ouly one button and that at the top. 
One of the Generals, with all his staff, had their headquarters at 
this house. It so happened that we had dropped in near noon, for 
we had not been there long when we heard dinner announced. 

Mrs. Palmer, at whose house we were, sent for us to come 
and take dinner, we returned thanks for kindness and excused 
ourselves, but no excuse would she take, and coming herself, 
she said, "I see you have on no shirts, but no one shall come 
into the dining room but myself, I will wait on you." Her 
youngest daughter had given us the first invitation, and at once 
appreciated our excuse. She reported to the rest of the family, 
but Mrs. Palmer agreed to keep out all young ladies. We had 
but cleverly seated ourselves, when three young ladies filed 
into the room and helped our plates, then sat down opposite to, 
and ate with us. The kindness and affableness of the young 
ladies, together with that of the mother, soon wore off our em- 
barrassment, and we enjoyed our dinner, as we had not for a 
long time. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



FAITHFUL. 

"Tell what else you please, ye slanderers of my native South, 
But tell no longer that the fair maid and matrons, 
Of Southern homes, were idle, vain, fancy flowers. 
Cultured by slaves, strangers to work, or solid worth. 
In all our huts, in farmers' homes aad planters' places, 
Out of which teemed the brave Southern soldier, 
Worked the livelong day, the soldier's sister, the soldier's wife. 
The brave boys' mother, and the maid he loved, 
To clothe and feed the loved ones on the tented fields." 

THE thought of the loved ones at home, helped the South- 
ern soldier over many a hard place. They were not urged 
forward by the mere feeling of the romantic, but deeper 
laid, in the recesses of the heart, were found the impetus to en- 
dure the hardships of a soldier's life, for they well knew at home 
were busy hands at work and anxious loving hearts sending up 
incessant prayers for them, their soldier boys. 

We left Chester at noon of the 10th, on the cars and passed 
through Charlotte, North Carolina and on to Salisbury, which 
we reached an hour after sun up next morning. Here we re- 
mained nearly one week. The next day after our arrival was 
Sunday, and we went to church; the first opportunity we had 
had for a long time. At the service in the morning the negroes 
occupied the gallery, and at night they held forth in the lower 
pews, and the white folks occupied the gallery. We attended 
both services. The negroes concluded their services by sing- 
ing, "I am going home to die no more," during which they 
were all in a perfect furor, going around shaking each other's 
hands and keeping time by the tramp of their feet. While 
we were here the rain was almost continual. The streets, and 
especially around the depot, were almost impassable on account 
of the mud. We remained here longer than expected, for we 



172 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

were needed in front of Sherman. We began to move on Sat- 
urday by rail, and everything seemed to be delayed, officers as 
well as men, anxions to be away, none more so than Gen. 
Cheatham, who began to get into a great bluster. 

One train had pulled out, another was ready with the troops 
on board the cars, standing on the track. Our brigade was wait- 
ing for its train, but could not get on until this one was out of 
the way. Gen. Cheatham wanted this train to move and called 
out, "Where is the conductor of this train?" The conductor all 
dressed up in his dudish uniform, was standing in two or three 
steps of Gen. Cheatham, on the curbing and said, "I am the 
conductor." "Why don't you move out with your train, what 
are you waiting on," said Cheatham. The conductor, not 
knowing who Cheatham was, replied, "I am running that part 
of the business sir." He had not more than finished his re- 
mark, when Cheatham let him feel the full weight of his fist, 
and landed him full length out in the mud. It is needless to 
say the conductor was up and had his train moving before he 
took time to shake off the mud. We pulled out late Saturday 
evening, and left the cars at Smithfield late Sunday night. 
Monday morning early, we started for the front, and marched 
about twenty miles, when we again began to hear the old fa- 
miliar sound of cannon in the vicinity of 

BENTONVILLE. 

We hurried on and early Tuesday evening we reached the 
scene of action just in time to prevent the coming of a column 
of the enemy through a gap in our line of battle between the right 
and left wings of the army. Here our brigade and regiment 
had its first encounter with the enemy on the new field, and 
since we crossed the Tennessee river on our return from Nash- 
ville. We drove them back and completed the broken line. 
Gen. Hardee and part of Johnson's men had been hotly engaged 
with the enemy all the morning. There was considerable skir- 
mishing all that evening. The next morning Sherman attempted 
to flank Hardee's left when Cheatham met them, holding them 
in check against considerable odds in numbers. As we moved 
to Hardee's left we passed Johnson's headquarters in the 
smoky pines, and all the boys as they passed took off their hats 
and gave him a loud, hearty cheer. 

The fighting this morning all along the line was quite 
heavy, and at different points on 'the line the enemy made 



BENTONVILLE. 173 

repeated attempts to 'break it, but failed. In one of these 
attacks Gen. Hardee lost his son. 

We never fought under just such circumstances before. 
The entire woods was filled with smoke, black and sooty, we 
could scarcely see. It filled not only our eyes, but our mouths. 
We were in a turpentine country, the trees all peeled and cov- 
ered with rosin, and about every fiftieth tree was on fire, and in 
addition to these, were two turpentine stills burning, with sev- 
eral barrels of rosin. Great black volumns of smoke filled all 
the woods and rendered it almost intolerable. 

Johnson had but a fragment of his once magnificent army, 
and compared with Sherman's, it was not more than a cor- 
poral's guard. 

Our men were almost worn out, having lost so much sleep, 
and being so used to the roar of musketry and artillery, that on 
the field of Bentonville, when not actually engaged, they would 
lie down and sleep while the shells burst, sometimes, almost 
over them. The music of battle seemed to lull them to sleep. 
The Confederate soldier was as generous as brave, to foe as to 
friend, and when they were in our hands were ever ready to 
help in time of trouble. 

On the battle-field of Bentonville, the Federal line had been 
repulsed and their dead and wounded left on the field, and as 
our men moved over the field one of the boys had a canteen 
partly filled with whisky, and passing a Federal lying on the 
field, with a leg nearly torn off by a shell, stopped, and lifting 
the wounded soldier in Blue up, with his head leaning on his 
arm, gave him several good swallows of whisky. After he had 
drank, the Federal soldier looked up in the face of his (can't I 
say) friend, and said, "I thank God, Johnnie Reb, it 
may come around some day that I can help you, and I shall 
never forget this drink of whisky." The Confederate laid the 
wounded soldier down and hastened on into the fight, which 
lasted until dark. 

That night Johnson fell back across Mill Creek, about two 
miles, where we remained about three days, when we moved 
within three miles of Smithfield, where we remained for several 
days, waiting on, and watching, the movements of Sherman. 
This was, virtually, the last battle of the war. On our way through 
North and South Carolinas, many of our men left us for their 



174 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

homes, especially North and South Carolinians, and East Ten- 
nesseeans. We were sorry they left us. It may be they saw but 
little prospect of success ahead of us, their patriotism having 
burned out left only blackened and charred hopes. While their 
help might not have amounted to very much, their presence and 
willingness to assist, would have added greatly in cheering the 
rest of us on to bear the brunt of battle and the drudgery of the 
march. We felt the last struggle was on, and we, who had been 
faithful until now, could not desert the dying Confederacy in 
her last gasp for life. Our Chaplains, during all of these days of 
marching and fighting, since we left Palmetta, Georgia, had 
been vigilant in watching the enemy of souls, had fought him 
every opportunity offered. Now for a few days, our Chaplain, 
Rev. R. W. Norton, preached for us, and also the Rev. Mr. 
Bennett, of the 12th Tennessee, nearly every day. 

April the 1st, General Johnson ordered a consolidation of 
regiments, troops of each State to themselves. All the Tennes- 
see regiments to form one corps under General Hardee, one di- 
vision under General Cheatham, one brigade under General Pal- 
mer. So small had the regiments become, that out of all the 
Tennessee regiments only four were formed. 

These four represented the thirty-seven regiments in the 
beginning, and was the remnant of thirty-seven (37,000). The 
first regiment was composed of the first, sixth, eighth, ninth, 
sixteenth, twenty-seventh, twenty-eighth, and thirty-fourth 
Tennessee regiments, under Colonel Fields. 

The second regiment, composed of the eleventh, twelfth, thir- 
teenth, twenty-ninth, forty-seventh, fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-sec- 
ond and one hundred and fifty-fourth Tennessee regiments, un- 
der Colonel Price. 

The third regiment, composed of the fourth, fifth, nine- 
teenth, twenty-fourth, thirty-first, thirty-third, thirty-fifth, thir- 
ty-eighth, and forty-first regiments, under Col. J. D. Tillman. 

The fourth regiment, composed of the second, third, tenth, 
fifteenth, eighteenth, twentieth, twenty-third, twenty-sixth, thir- 
ty-second, thirty-seventh, and forty-fifth regiments, under Col- 
onel Searcey. This consolidation was never confirmed by the 
administration, as it was too near the close of the war. 

The Old Nineteenth Tennessee regiment had only two com- 
panies. The first company, composed of Companies, A, D, E, 
F, and K, and commanded by Capt. Jake Waller. 



NEARING THE END. 175 

The second company, composed of companies B, C, G, H, 
and I, and commanded by Capt. Jake Kimbrough. 

There were on the roll, rank and file, only sixty-four men 
of the regiment, and this was commanded by Colonel C. W. 
Heiskell and Major J. H. Hannah. Heiskell was promoted to 
Colonel just after our return from Hood's campaign into Ten- 
nessee. 

This being so near the close of our eventful war the vacan- 
cy in the Lieut. Colonelcy of the regiment was never filled. 
Co. C, had only three men, Lieut. W. D. Gammon, R. F. Mc- 
Pherson, and Win. R. Irvin. 

Where are all the twelve hundred and ninety-seven men who 
enlisted from first to last in the regiment? If we go to the bat 
tie fields of Barboursville, Fishing Creek, Shiloh, Vicksburg, 
Baton Rouge, Murfreesboro, Chicamauga, Mission Ridge, Dal- 
ton, Rocky Face, Resaca, Adairsville, Cass Station, Dallas, 
New Hope, Pine Mountain, Old Kennesaw, Smyrna, Peach 
Tree Creek, 22d July, Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Franklin, Nash- 
ville, Columbia and Bentonville we will get an answer for a 
great many of the absentees, and on the many picket lines, fell 
from the deadly bullet of the videttes many who never returned. 
We left Smithfield, April 10th, and on our march we passed 
through Raleigh and Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

There had fallen and was still falling a great deal of rain, 
and all the streams were full, there being no bridges we had to 
wade and swim them all. When we came to Cape Fear river 
it was much swollen and rising rapidly. There was no way of 
crossing but to swim. The men tried to form the Monkey's 
chain by holding each others hands, but the current was too 
strong and broke their hold. When it came our time to try the 
water we gave our watch to Col. Heiskell to keep it from getting 
wet. We went in and halted and debated in our minds whether 
to go on or return as the water then was under our arms and 
deeper further on. Just then Gen. Cheatham came riding in 
and as he passed us we caught hold of his horse's tail and 
landed safely on the other side. Finally all were over and mid- 
night found us standing around our camp fires drying ourselves. 
The next morning we moved out and camped within thirteen 
miles of Greensborough with Sherman hovering close around 
us. On the eighteenth we received the news of Lee's surrender 
to Grant. Also we were told an armistice of five days had been 



176 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

agreed upon between Johnson and Sherman. The news of 
Lee's surrender and Johnson's negotiations produced a feeling 
of sadness throughout the army. Although we were anxious 
for the war to end, yet we were hardly prepared for a surrend- 
er. We had not calculated and looked into the depth of a sur- 
render, the giving up as lost that for which we had fought, so 
long and for which so many had given their lives, was indeed 
hard, and the idea grated like harsh thunder, on our nerves. 

On the morning of the 24th, the armistice was out and we 
were told at noon hostilities would be resumed. Orders were 
given to get ready to move at once, which we did. We went 
into camp within three miles of Greensboro where we drew 
rations and clothing. Johnson's headquarters were in a small 
log cabin not far from Durham, from which place he sent a 
messenger under flag of truce to Gen. Sherman for a meeting to 
arrange for a surrender. They had two meetings in this farm 
house which was about five or six miles from Durham. Here 
an agreement was reached and on April the 26th, 1865 Johnson 
surrendered the army of Tennessee to Gen. Sherman and the 
war was at an end. As soon as the surrender was announced, 
excitement ran high and all the first night the men moved 
around in great unrest; but little sleeping was done and the 
only topic discussed during the night was the surrender. The 
men began slipping out to leave for home, and in order to quiet 
the unrest, Johnson ordered daily drill and inspection. This 
gave the men something to do and to think about. We remained 
here until the pay rolls were made out, and complete arrange- 
ments were made for our return home. Johnson made better 
terms with Sherman, than Lee did with Grant. 

General Sherman had the kindest regards and feelings for 
General Johnson. Sherman knew Johnson well; knew him 
personally, socially, and had tested him thoroughly in war. In 
the long and tedious campaign from Dalton to Atlanta, Sher- 
man said he never caught Johnson napping, or off his guard, 
that he never made a secret move but Johnson detected it and 
was ready to meet it. After the surrender, General Johnson 
kept control of the men until the army crumbled away by divis- 
ions, brigades and regiments, each under its respective officers. 
They dropped out here and there, at their respective homes 
until the last vestage of a once magnificent army was gone for- 
ever. No Confederate soldier will ever forget General John- 
son's last order to them. 



CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES. 177 

When we called the men into line to hear the last message 
of their leader they listened with sorrowful hearts, knowing a 
separation would soon follow, never to meet again in the same 
relationship as had been for the last four years. 

Near Greensboro, N. C, 
May 2nd, 1865. 
General Order, No. 22. 

P 1st 

P 2nd . . . You will return home with the admira- 
tion of our people, won by the courage and noble devotion you 
have displayed in this long war. I shall always remember with 
pride the loyal support and generous confidence you have given 
me. I now part with you with deep regret, and bid you 
farewell, with feelings of cordial friendship, and with earnest 
wishes that you may have hereafter all the prosperity and hap- 
piness to be found in this world. 

Joseph E. Johnson, 

General. 
Kincaid Faulkner, Ass't. Adj't-General. 

After receiving our pay-rolls from General Sherman, we 
bade General Johnson, as our General, an eternal farewell. 
Leaving Greensboro, May the 14th, we moved out in regular or- 
der for Salisbury. On our way we passed through Thomasville 
and the ladies (God bless them) waved the Confederate flag 
from the windows of the Academy, but they received only a 
faint response. We felt sad. We were but part of the funer- 
al procession going home from the burial of the 'dead Con- 
federacy. At Salisbury, the army disintegrated. 

After drawing rations, and transportation had been pro- 
vided, the soldiers separated, the greater part of them going 
South. All the Tennesseeans went by way of Asheville. 

When the Tennesseeans had passed out beyond Salisbury, 
they halted and formed line as in review, when General Cheat- 
ham came down the line shaking the hand of every soldier, not 
one missed, while the great big tears rolled down his cheeks. 
There was not an eye but was suffused with tears; yea, 
they were fountains of tears. As the generous and brave Gen- 
eral, whom we all loved, shook our hands, just now and then 
could he get out the word "good-by." The great upheaval of 
his loving, sympathetic heart choked him, as he walked down 



178 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

the line for the last review of his faithful and devoted men, "my 
boys," as he called them, and whom he had led in many a hard 
fought battle. Will any one, who was present at this scene, 
ever forget it? No, never. 

On the seventh of May, we Tennesseeans left Salisbury 
and the exciting and smoky battle scenes of North Carolina be- 
hind, and started out on our journey home. On the 9th we 
passed through Morganton late in the evening, and bivouaced 
for the night two miles beyond. The next morning we moved 
out for Asheville, through which we passed on the 13th, and 
camped a short distance below, on the French Broad river for 
the night. 

We reached Greeneville, Tennessee, on the 15th, where we 
remained a few days. The nearer we got to our homes now, 
the more anxious the men were to be there. At Greeneville we 
had to wait for transportation, and the boys became restless and 
seemed lost. Here was another separation. Part of the men 
took the eastbound train for various parts in upper East Ten- 
nessee, while the greater number continued westward, dropping 
off here and there on the way, as they reached their respective 
homes, some going on to Middle and West Tennessee. The 
writer and Dave Lovelace reached our home on the 18th day of 
May. 

"And hung our hat and old gray coat, 

In the closet on the wall 
No more to signal "Fall in boys," 
Nor rouse them by the fife's shrill call." 

My home was on Roseberry Creek, near the railroad, and 
spanning the creek was a high bridge. The next morning we 
repaired to the railroad to see some of the men go by who were 
waiting for trains when we left Greeneville. The train was just 
half way over the bridge when the trucks of one car broke loose 
and threw three cars of soldiers down an embankment thirty 
feet. Twelve Confederates were killed, and several badly hurt. 
To-day, twelve Confederate soldiers ended their journey of life be- 
fore reaching home, and sleep on the banks of Roseberry, at my 
old home. Sad, and from a human standpoint, hard, that these 
young and noble, brave boys, who had gone through the war, 
should, just as they were about reaching the "step-stone" of 
the dearest spot on earth to them, go down in this horrible wreck. 



THE LAST ROLL-CALL. 179 

Yes, the war is over. And through those long, eventful 
four years of danger, hardships and exposures, the Old Nine- 
teenth Tennessee bravely fought her way, bore her part in the 
joys and sorrows of camp life, and although but- few were left, 
she came out of the struggle as true and as noble a regiment as 
ever mustered on the field of battle. Out of the twelve hundred 
and ninety-seven enrolled in all, only sixty-four answered to 
the last roll call. When beyond the gathering gloom of life's 
fading years, when the last "rebel soldier" shall have been 
laid away in the quiet resting place of the dead ; succeeding 
generations will read with pride the heroism of the old "Nine- 
teenth Tennessee" Confederate veterans of the long ago. 

As the "blue and gray" fell side by side on the many gory 
fields, as they lie side by side in their final resting places; so 
their names will be recorded side by side in the annals of 
time, and the same mantle of glory will cover them all. 

"The echoes long have died away 

Of musket's ring and cannon's roar 

And ranks of bayonets no more 

Tell of the furious battle day 

When northern blue met southern gray." 




CHAPTER XXVI. 



This supplementary chapter was written by Col. C. W. Heiskell, the last 
Colonel of the regiment, and who commanded the regiment from the death 
of Colonel Walker to the end of the war. After the battle of Franklin, Col. 
Heiskell had charge of Strahl's brigade, and there was no change in Jbrigade 
and regimental officers until just before the surrender, when a general con- 
solidation of all the Tennessee regiments, into four regiments was made. 

W. J. W. 

SUPPLEMENT AKY. 

THUS euds these chronicles. This strange eventful history, 
true as strange, and so admirably composed, has for me 
a wonderful fascination. It is a story of a regiment of 
young men made up largely of the best of Southern blood. 

That its endurance of hardship, its fortitude under most 
difficult and trying ordeals, and its unconquerable loyalty to 
the cause for which it fought, shone more conspicuously than 
did these qualities in other Confederate regiments, I will not 
assert. But of its valor and its fame I am more than proud. 

The one it illustrated on every battle field— the other shines 
brightly in all the chambers of thought and memory. And this 
simple unvarnished recital will preserve it untarnished for the 
generations to come. 

Looking backward through the vista of forty years that 
have elapsed since the Nineteenth shouldered arms, my soul is 
stirred with strange and unutterable emotions. 

I see the company's muster, the regiment organized, see 
the daily drill, guard mounting, breakfast, dinner, and as the 
westerning sun sinks to rest, I see the companies one by one 
take their places on dress parade. What an array! How in- 
spiring the music ; how magnificent that long and symmetrical 
line, a thousand men and more; and with what soldierly bear- 
ing they march and wheel and counter-march. I listen again 
to the jest and laugh, as we sit and smoke and take our rest, 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 181 

around the camp fire, when the days deeds are done. I hear 
"taps" sounded, and lights are out; and silence reigns; broken 
save by the tread or challenge of the lone sentinel. 

And so camp life begins, punctuated now and again by 
some breach of discipline varied by the slaying of a vicious hog 
or goose that threatens to attack the Colonel with deadly intent, 
or by some amusing prank played upon unwary citizens visit- 
ing camp. Here is one with a load of watermelons. One fel- 
low is buying a melon at one end of the wagon and two are 
helping themselves at the other end. Here is a man making 
complaint to John Webster, (Co. K,) that the soldiers had 
stolen his chickens and geese and ducks. "And ducks too" 
said John. "They ought to be shot— the idea of a soldier of 
the Nineteenth stealing ducks" and then a duck quacked under 
John's coat. And so camp life goes on. 

1 see the regiment filing over the Cumberland mountains 
into Kentucky, and in camp at Cumberland Ford. The ap- 
proach of the enemy is announced and there is great commo- 
tion But it would have done you good to see with what alac- 
rity the men shouldered arms and marched out, as they thought, 
to battle. 

It was, however, an alarm to us. An old "Ginny" negro, 
a servant in company A, was so frightened, that when we re- 
returned to camp, we found him lying face down with his head 
sticking inside of his tent and his feet outside, and these moved 
up and down as his paroxysms of fear came and went. 

We heard that a force of Federals were assembling at Bar- 
boursville, and Co. B and K, of the Old Nineteenth and compa- 
nies from the Twentieth Tennessee, under command of Colonel 
Battle, were sent to dislodge them. Clarke Brewer, of Co. I, 
now living in Memphis, slipped off and went with us, We 
marched all night, and at daylight the next morning — oh ! how 
tired and sleepy we were — September the 19th, 1861, we heard 
the first hostile gun of the war. Here fell Robert Powell, First 
Lieutenant of Co. K, a quiet, unassuming, brave man, the first 
Confederate who fell outside of Virginia in the war between the 
States. But the force against us scattered and we retired to 
camp. 

The scarcity of salt was so great, that the Nineteenth 
Tennessee, with a great train of wagons, was sent from Cum- 
berland Ford to Goose Creek Salt Works, for a supply. On 



182 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

this expedition the rain poured upon us with such fury, that it 
was with great difficulty we made our fires at night. And when 
these were made, without tents, we stood around them through 
the night, wet through and through, to march next day through 
swollen streams and roads shoe-mouth deep in mud. We got 
the salt, and the poor people along our route had a touch of war 
from the depredations of a few of the undisciplined. One fel- 
low got a mule and an old torn umbrella, and astraddle the 
mule, without bridle, with umbrella hoisted, rode through the 
regiment to the amusement of all. Measles, diarrhoea, and all 
the diseases camp life is heir to, seized upon us. The hospital 
fills, and roll-call shows many absentees. 

And now we are marching over the mountains through 
Overton County, Tennessee, and into Kentucky, where across 
the Cumberland river from Mill Springs, we fortify and build 
cabins for winter quarters. Thence, on January 18th, 1862, we 
make a night march some eleven miles to the battle and defeat 
at Fishing Creek. The Old Nineteenth Tennessee entered the 
fight at day dawn and began the retreat a eleven A. M. It was 
a fierce fight. Here the peerless Zollicoffer fell. He rode 
through the Old Nineteenth Tennessee towards the enemy. We 
saw him — white gum overcoat, white horse — rush forward to 
personally reconoiter, and then we saw him fall, and the army 
fell back. Here fell Carroll Carmack, Co. K, the witty, the 
genial, the brave boy, who, as I knelt over him, called on me 
to pray for him, and tell his mother how he died. Here Billy 
Vestal, of Co. E, twenty yards in advance of the regimental line 
of battle, than whom no braver man fought that day, was 
wounded and captured. We thought Billy was done for, but 
in a few days he came into camp, having left the enemy's hos- 
pital and the enemy's lines, wounded as he was. Here the gal- 
lant Lieutenant Conley, of Co. B, gave up his life. 

This defeat was complete, and the remarkable part about it 
was, that Thomas did not capture the whole of us. But we got 
back to Camp Beech Grove, and thence at eleven o'clock at 
night, January 19th, 1862, began to cross the Cumberland and 
retreat towards Murfreesboro, to meet Gen. A. S. Johnson, 
falling back from Bowling Green, Kentucky. Our hardships 
on this retreat cannot be told. Without tents, without food, 
many without blankets, on we marched Monday and Tuesday, 
On Wednesday night we had a supply of corn meal, but no 




COLONEL C. W. HEISKELL. 

Colonel Heiskell was born ten miles west of Knoxville, Tenn., in Knox 
county, on July the '25th, 1836. After graduating, he read and practiced law 
at Rogersville, Tenn., until the war broke out. He entered the army as a 
private in Company K, May, 1861. At the organization of the Nineteenth 
Tennessee regiment, in June, he was elected Captain of Company K. At the 
reorganization of the regiment, in June, 1862, he was re-elected Captain of the 
company. After the battle of Murfreesboro he was promoted to Major of the 
regiment. He was severely wounded at the battle of Chickamauga. Some 
time after the death of Colonel Moore, and before the death of Colonel Walker, 
Major Heiskell was made Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment, 1 think in Jan- 
uary, 1864. After the battle of Jonesboro, Ca.. Atlanta campaign, and the 
death of Colonel Walker, Heiskell was promoted to Colonel of the regiment. 



SUPPLEMENTAL. 183 

cooking utensils and no salt, nothing but meal and fire and 
water. We made dough, and plastering this on a board stood 
it before the fire and thus cooked it. The next night flour ra- 
tions were issued. This we made into dough and rolled into 
long strings a little larger than a lead pencil ; these were wrap- 
ped around ram-rods and these stuck in the ground near enough 
to the fire to soon cook. And this was all we had to eat that 
day. Next night, as we lay on the ground, it rained and snowed, 
and about four o'clock in the morning I was awakened by the 
cries of my men, "The Captain is on fire." I lost no time in 
getting to my feet, and throwing off my blanket, a new one — a 
treasure — which burned to tatters. When we reached Murfrees- 
boro many of us were sick, but those ready for duty marched 
with Johnson, and on the bloody field of Shiloh fought 
with conspicuous bravery, losing very heavily in killed and 
wounded. 

The regiment took part in the capture of General Prentice 
and his men; in fact, the General surrendered his sword to 
Lieut.-Col. F. M. Walker, who then commanded the regiment, 
Colonel Cummings having left the field wounded, before this 
capture. 

Here the Confederacy was lost through the incompetency 
of Beauregard. When the first day was drawing to a close and 
Grant was routed at every point, when the order was issued, 
and was in the act of being executed, to charge the enemy, 
Beauregard countermanded the order. Had he not done so, 
that Federal army would have surrendered without doubt. 
Gov. Harris, in whose arms Gen. Johnson fell, when shot, told 
me that he was so overwhelmed with astonishment and grief at 
Beauregard's order, that he rushed to him and implored him 
to withdraw the order and let the charge be made, and that sur- 
render was sure. But no. It was not to be. The Governor 
told me also that after the war, Beauregard applied to him to 
write him a vindication of his conduct of that battle after John- 
son fell; but that he said to Beauregard he could not do it. 

There fell in this battle killed and wounded some of our 
best and bravest men. (See page 45.) 

In the camp at Corinth the term of our enlistment expired. 
The reorganization of the regiment was a remarkable display 
of pluck and patriotism. So few were the malcontents. The 
regiment was in the great battle where Gen. Pope (what a 



184 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

sturdy liar Pope was) captured 20,000 of us. The fact is he 
did not capture 20 of us. At least we did not know it if he did. 
The night before this engagement, it was really only a recon- 
noisance in force, I dreamed I met my brother who was a sol- 
dier in the Federal army face to face in battle. After the war 
we met, and I told him of the dream. "Why," he said, "I 
was in that engagement." And indeed we were, no doubt, not 
500 yards apart in the fight. 

From Corinth the Nineteenth went into the swamps to guard 
our only line of railroad communication. In the swamps in rain 
and mud with no place to sit down, we remained for some time. 
I recollect that I squatted under a temporary brush arbor and 
with the rain pattering down, read "Jane Eyre" until my posi- 
tion became unbearable and then I would stand and read 
awhile. 

Thence under Gen. Breckenridge we went to Vicksburg 
(June 1862,) and on July 4th, 1862, we, with the 15th Mississip- 
pi, were ordered into a swamp some four miles below Vicks- 
burg, where it was reported the Federals had made a landing. 
This was an exceedingly trying inarch. We waded through 
the swamp for more than a mile with the mud some times up 
to our knees, and when we got through and stood upon the 
levee of the Mississippi, a gunboat 200 yards below us, at the 
river bank commenced a fusilade upon us. To save ourselves 
we double quicked down towards the boat where we got so near 
to it — not more than 150 feet— that it could not depress its guns 
low enough to strike us. Everybody was ordered to lie down. 
Volunteers w T ere then called for, to go onward and reconnoiter. 
Lieut. W. W. Etter, (Co. K,) whose courage was always con- 
spicuous, jumped to his feet and said, "Colonel I will go." The 
Colonel replied, "Lieut. I want privates not officers for this duty . ' ' 
"Well," said the Lieut, "consider me a private for this occa- 
sion." So he with others — for the volunteers were more than 
were wanted — reconnoitered. But while doing so the gunboat 
moved off. 

We stayed for weeks at Vickjsburg plagued by mosquitoes, 
chills and fevers and shells from the Federal Gunboats. How 
our ranks were decimated. To see that magnificent body of 
high spirited young men, dwindle to a tithe of its former num- 
ber, and those on duty mere shadows of their former selves, 
Oh! it was pitiful. But when the order came to go to Baton 



SUPPLEMENTAL. 185 

Rouge the regiment was ready. Sick as it was. Lieut. Etter, 
(Co. K,) went through the battle at Baton Rouge with a chill 
on him. Lieut. Nail (Co. A,) was desperately wounded, in 
this fight, Thomas Wright, and Lieut. J. M. Sims; Emmet 
White was killed. 

After this battle the men under Gen. Breckenridge were in 
such miserable plight that they were put in camp near Jackson, 
Miss, to recuperate. Before this, however, Gen. Breckenridge 
in token of the high appreciation of The Nineteenth's services, 
by order read at dress parade — ordered as an especial honor — 
that Fishing Creek, Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Baton Rouge be 
inscribed on our battle flag. While in sick camp at Jackson 
the regiment was paid off for the first time in eleven months, 
$66.00 a piece to each private. 

Jake Williford, (Co. K,) a good and faithful soldier had a 
chuck-a-luck board. The regiment was paid off about a mile 
from camp. The money was in sheets, a dozen or more bills 
printed on a sheet of paper. Some of the boys gambled away 
their whole six months pay before they reached camp at Jake's 
chuck-a-luck game. 

Several of the men died here and these are buried in 
the cemetery at Jackson, Miss. Among them are J. B. Erwin, 
Co. F. S. W. Riley, Co. I, and S. M. Jenkins, Co. F. 

Our next battle was at Murfreesboro, Tenn., where Bragg, 
after whipping the enemy failed to push the victory. It was a 
bloody battle. Maj. Jarnagin, a gallant and much beloved 
officer fell here. Here fell also 

(See page 74 and 75.) 

We spent the winter and spring in front of Shelbyville. 
And from here marched to Chattanooga. 

The regiment during the winter and spring was the advance 
pickets of the army eight miles towards Nashville — from Shel- 
byville. Here I was promoted to be major of the Regiment. 

One of my old Co.— a conscript— was condemned to be 
shot for desertion. I interceded for him with Gen. Polk, who 
gave me little encouragement. But just as the file of soldiers 
were receiving the order to fire on him, a courier dashed up 
with a pardon. That night the poor fellow deserted, and we 
never caught him, of which I was truly glad; for if we had, he 
would have been shown no mercy. The regiment was largely 
recruited here but the recruits were not generally of the fine 



186 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

material of the original enlistment. Yet after drilling and dis- 
cipline for several months we had a fine regiment when we 
started towards Chattanooga and the battle of Chicamauga. 

On this march when we reached Tullahoma we formed line 
of battle and I really thought we were to fight there ; but after 
hot skirmishing, about midnight our march was renewed. I 
recollect how easy it was to keep awake through the night, 
until the near approach of day, when the desire to sleep was so 
strong upon me, that I slept as I rode along, and was awakened 
by my horse stopping to drink as we crossed a creek. 

Reaching Chattanooga we built fortifications in diverse 
positions and when we left Chattanooga for the battle field of 
Chicamauga had an army ready and eager to fight. 

An incident occurred at Chattanooga worthy of relating". 
On the 21st day of August, 1863, Dr. B. M. Palmer, of New 
Orleans, was to preach. While he was praying his opening 
prayer, the enemy fired upon the city. People arose in 
haste and left the church. But the Doctor never stopped 
praying, nor did he exhibit the least nervousness. When 
he got through, I think he and I, and probably one or two 
others, were the only people left in the church. One of the 
enemy's shots struck a little girl and broke her leg. Her peo- 
ple carried her out of the city, and stopping at Lieutenant 
Colonel Moore's father's house, near where General Preston 
Smith's brigade was camped, asked for admittance. The 
family were overwhelmed with visitors and friends fleeing from 
Chattanooga, and it was impossible for them to take the child 
in. And so Mr. Moore refused. General Smith heard the re- 
fusal, and not knowing the circunstances, denounced the old 
gentleman very bitterly. Colonel Moore, hearing of it, wrote 
General Smith a letter, in which he stated that while General 
Smith was his superior officer, he wanted him to understand 
distinctly that he regarded his conduct towards his old father 
as that of a bully and a coward, and he could make the most of 
it. He went on then to give the reason for his denunciation of 
the Genera], showing that it would have been impossible to have 
done otherwise than his father did. The next morning, Colonel 
Moore came to my tent and said, "Major, General Smith, and 
one of his staff, will be here in a few minutes about this matter 
and I want you to be present." I told him certainly. Soon 
they came. And General Smith, in the most ample manner, 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 187 

apologized and expressed his deep sorrow for what had occurred, 
and then asked Colonel Moore if that was sufficient! Colonel 
Moore turned to me and said, "Major, what do you think of 
it?" I said, "Colonel, the apology is so ample that you ought 
to accept it." He turned to General Smith, and said to him, 
"Say it over again, General," which he did. And then Moore 
remarked, "As Major Heiskell says your apology is sufficient, 
I will accept it." I told him, I thought it was thoroughly 
satisfactory. And so the incident closed. 

Rosecrans thought Bragg was in haste to retreat and had 
no intention of fighting. So he divided his army into three 
divisions of 20,000 each. One he sent forward to head off 
Bragg; another to strike him in the flank, and the other he had 
in Bragg' s rear, as he supposed. These three divisions were 
twenty miles apart. Bragg was informed of this state of things, 
and indeed sent General Hindman to fight the advance of Rose- 
crans' army, in McLemore's Cove. But for some unaccount 
able reason, without blame fixed upon any one, the enemy were 
allowed to escape. Instead of Bragg falling upon these three 
corps and destroying them in detail, he waited until Rosecrans 
corrected his stupid blunder and consolidated his 60,000 men in 
one compact army. Then Bragg fought the battle of Chica- 
mauga. The Sunday before the battle of Chicamauga, I, in 
command of the Nineteenth, deployed as skirmishers, was sent 
out in front of the army to draw the enemy on to attack. When 
some mile or more in front of our line of battle, skirmish- 
ing began. This continued in intensity until from the right it 
was reported that the enemy was in such force, that I ordered 
the right to fall back slowly. Then from the center I heard the 
enemy's cannon stop and unlimber. I heard the command to 
load and fire. My line being hotly pressed along its whole front 
I ordered it to fall back. This we did across an open field for 
over a half a mile, with the bullets flying most uncomfortably 
near. But the enemy did not attack, and so the day of battle 
was delayed and the place changed to Chickamauga, Georgia. 

This was a battle royal between 60,000 brave men of the 
Northwest and 60,000 brave men of the South Its boom of 
cannon, its storm of musketry, charge and counter charge, 
couriers rushing hither and yon, men falling thick and fast, the 
groan, the death-rattle, the wounded borne from the field — many 
killed or dying on the stretchers before the line of death hail was 



188 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

passed — but on, and still backward the enemy was pressed to 
the foot of Snodgrass Hill — there the Nineteenth halted. Here 
were all the vicissitudes of war — the horrors of battle, and the 
glory of victory. It was a proud day; it was a sad day. The 
glory of victory filled us all with exultant joy. But Oh! the 
purchase price of it. The roll-call of the dead. 

Lackey and Looney, (See page 94.) 

All good men and true. All soldiers without reproach, 
and brave with all that word implies. The list of the wounded 
was much greater. Among these was Capt. S. J. A. Frazier, 
now at Hill City, Tennessee, so desperately that he was cap- 
tured, having been left on the field for dead. He never faltered 
in duty, whether in camp or march, or battle. I also was 
wounded. As I was leaving the field, I turned to view the fight. 
The regiment was then moving by the right flank under a fierce 
fire. There was Colonel Walker, cool and alert; there was 
Lieutenant-Colonel Moore, with his sword pointing toward the 
enemy and horse, careering. I saw Moore fall from his horse 
and I thought he was gone, till I saw him light on his feet and 
spring to the bead of the regiment. And the men — they marched 
erect— soldiers every one. Indeed, it was a gallant sight. 

I quote here from General Strain" s report: 

"Most of the field officers on my right were dismounted by 
having their horses shot from under them and Maj . Heiskell of 
the Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, a very gallant officer was 
severely wounded in the foot." 

"During this short encounter with the enemy, (this was on 
the morning of the first day of the battle) "the Nineteenth Ten- 
nessee Regiment was on my right and was therefore, much 
more exposed and consequently met with a much heavier loss 
than any other in the brigade. But its field officers — Col. F. M. 
Walker and Lieut. -Col. Beriah F. Moore acted with such cool- 
ness and gallantry that they inspired their men with courage 
and confidence. "The company and field officers as a 
general thing, conducted themselves with great gallantry and 
coolness, and discharged their duties in such a manner as to 
reflect much credit upon themselves and their commands. 

"The private in the ranks as usual, displayed that noble 
courage for which Southern soldiers have ever been distin- 
guished." But what availed it! With a triumphantly victor- 
ious army, with the enemy seeking refuge in Chattanooga and 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 189 

dreading our. advance, Bragg waited until too late and then 
occupied Missionary Ridge. There he sat down and waited; 
waited until Grant came with legions of Federals to drive 
him from his great coigne of vantage, and rob him of all fruits 
of his victory and more. In the fight of Missionary Ridge fell 
Lieut. -Col. Beriah F. Moore in sight of his father's house, than 
whom no more courageous spirit ever entered the Halls of Val- 
halla. Ah! the pity of the brave, who fell on that bloody field 
of Chicamauga — and for naught. 

Surely the day will come when Tennessee, whose sons 
comprised 40 per cent of the 60,000 soldiers who fought on the 
Confederate side in that world renowned battle, will erect a 
grand and enduring monument. "To the private soldiers of 
the Army of Tennessee whose deeds of high emprise upon this 
field of battle, added eternal glory to the fair name of the Vol- 
unteer State." 

Then began the reorganization and revitalization of the 
army under Gen. Jos. E. Johnston, a great soldier, of whom 
Gen. Sherman said when Davis removed him "That is worth 
20,000 men to me. On Johnston's retreat from Dalton to Atlan- 
ta he never lost a canteen and I never attempted a movement 
that Johnston had not anticipated."* Johnston's only fault, 
a great one too, was that he did not fight Sherman on that 
retreat. 

The Nineteenth on this retreat covered herself with glory. 
Fighting and marching almost every hour of the day and night, 
their uncomplaining fortitude under all the hard conditions of 
short ration, scanty clothing, constant duty under almost con- 
tinual fire, their unflinching courage, chivalric bearing and 
deeds of daring, notably at Dead Anglet where the struggle with 



*Note. This was told me in haec verba by Capt. Harry Lee of the Fed- 
eral Army, after the war, who said he heard Gen. Sherman make the remark. 

tNoTK. I here give the position of the Nineteenth at that fight. It was 
then temporarily in Maney's Brigade, which was commanded by Col. F. M. 
Walker. 

Dead Angle. 



19th Tenn. Col Fi^r* ^ 






190 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

the advancing foe was so fierce and close, that the boys clubbed 
their guns and beat off the enemy or struck them down with 
stones, entitles her to immortal honor, and makes her history a 
part of the Glory of America. And to think that Johnston 
should be removed when he would have delivered battle of July 
18th as Sherman was crossing the Chattahoocha instead of on 
the 22nd, when it was too late. In this fight, July 22nd, the 
Nineteenth marched in line of battle up a line of earthworks of 
the Federals and slaughtered them in heaps — until they came 
to another line of works striking these at right angles. Here 
fell that peerless soldier and true gentleman, Brigadier Gen- 
eral Frances Marion Walker, Colonel of the Nineteenth. His 
commission as Brigadier General reached the army after his 
death. And here too fell many a private brave as he. 

I came to the regiment on crutches just after Johnston's re- 
moval and the devotion of the troops to him was evidenced by 
the fact that as we sat around the camp-fire they would speak 
in the highest terms of their commander and weep when they 
told me of his leaving them. I had lost my horse during my 
long absence ; and when the retreat from Atlanta began I was 
told to get on the train and leave that way, as I could not pro- 
ceed on foot. When the train got four or five miles from At- 
lanta, it was fired into by the enemy and it returned to Atlanta. 
And there I was on three legs, my command— the whole Con- 
federate army gone— and the Federal army approaching. 

In this extremity, I paid a negro a silver dollar, the only 
money I had, to get me a horse from Capt. Winston, a friend 
of mine, and on this horse I left Atlanta late in the evening. 
As the shadows of night gathered in, I saw the grand fire-works 
of the comsuming ordnance supplies burned to keep them from 
falling into the enemy's hands. The pyrotechnics were fearful 
in grandeur. The lurid glare of licking flames, the mighty 
boom of bursting shells, broke upon the gloomy desolation and 
oppressed the soul with awe and sadness. 

The campaign of Hood in Tennessee, the awful slaughter of 
Franklin and the terrible retreat from Nashville, signalized 
again the dauntless courage and invaluable services of the old 
regiment. At Franklin, Arthur Fulkerson, a gallant boy, fell 
pierced with sixteen bullets. He was then Sergeant-Major of the 
regiment. Wm. Phipps and Wm. Hipshire were both wounded 



SUPPLEMENTAKY. 191 

for the first time in the war, and they both fought with con- 
spicuous bravery in every battle the regiment was in, from 
the beginning, to the end of the war. All this has been often 
told, and no where better than in these chronicles. 

One incident of the retreat which I have never seen in 
print was this : When the line of infantry, under Cheatham, 
came to Duck river from towards Nashville on their retreat, 
Forrest's cavalry, coming on a different road, met the infantry 
column right at the pontoon bridge. General Cheatham was at 
the head of his division and General Forrest at the head of his. 
Cheatham insisted that he should cross and Forrest insisted 
that he should cross. High and angry words ensued. I 
could hear the click of the muskets all along the line of my reg- 
iment, which was in front. The declaration was freely made 
by the men, that they would defend old Frank and shoot For- 
rest's cavalry into the middle of Duck river in a minute, if the 
worst came to the worst. But like a brave man Forrest gave 
way and the two apologized for their hot words, and Cheatham 
crossed; and Forrest followed. 

An incident of Forrest's rear guard, personally witnessed, 
was this : Forrest had said to Hood that he thought he could keep 
the enemy on the Nashville side of Duck river until Christ- 
mas. Through the fault or misfortune of a lieutenant, the enemy 
crossed and we had to leave Columbia. As we halted a few 
minutes just outside of the town, this lieutenant, came meeting 
us, crying in an excited voice, "Where is General Forrest?" 
Just then Forrest rode up and what he said to the lieutenant 
would not grace a Sunday-school book. 

The behavior of the men on this retreat could not have been 
finer. The weather was bitter cold while at Columbia. The 
frozen snow, swept by the north wind, made it impossible for 
us, without tents and a very scant supply of blankets, to get 
warm and keep warm. Our retreat was not only burdened with 
the gloom of defeat, but it was through slush and wet, and imi- 
nent peril of attack by the oncoming victors. 

Many of the men were bare-footed and many hatless, yet 
there was no emergency in all that masterly retreat that they 
failed to meet, and no duty required, that they did not perform 
with alacrity, daring and efficiency. 

When the fight at Anthony's Hill was approaching, the 
Nineteenth was three miles in advance. We returned to the 



192 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE 

fight at a double quick. I stood near Forrest as two pieces of 
captured cannon, horses, everything complete, were driven past 
him. And for the first time I realized the force of the expres- 
sion, "his eyes flashed fire." The fervor of the battle— gaudia 
et gloria certaminis — energied every fiber of his being; and 
amidst the clearing smoke of the contest, and shouts of victory, 
it seemed to me that real fire flashed from his eyes. He sat on 
his horse the very God of War. 

The next morning we fought again. I commanded the bri- 
gade. I had been on leave for twelve months with a bullet 
through my foot, and was then limping along — and I think I 
was the only scared man in the brigade. 

Fighting was almost new to me, but to the men — well, they 
seemed to enjoy it. The alacrity with which that half-starved, 
half-clad remnant of Strahl's proud brigade shouted and sprang 
to the charge and swept the Federal cavalry from the field, was 
a wonderful feat of arms. I think it was the most gallant sight 
I witnessed during the whole war. Jim Stephenson, Company 
E, was so sick, that when we started into line of battle, I told 
him to go on with the wagon train as he was too sick to carry a 
gun. But when the fight was over there stood Stevenson. I 
asked him with some heat why he did not do as I commanded. 
"Oh!" he said, "Colonel, I wanted to see the fight." He had 
actually gone through the engagement simply to look on. 

Orders were strict against "foraging." William Phipps 
and James Havely fell in with a vicious turkey gobbler, which 
after a great strategy they captured. In doing so, one of them 
dropped a note-book with his name in it. They came to me in 
great trouble, fearing the book would be found and they be 
punished. But the book was never found. When we reached 
camp that night the gobbler was anchored so that he could do 
no harm, and as we halted several days the boys stuffed that 
turkey with dough and corn — putting these down his throat with 
a stick. And when they killed and cooked him, I was invited 
. to help eat him. It was the fattest fowl I ever ate. Solomon 
says, "Stolen waters are sweet." Had he dined with us that 
day he would have added to the proverb, "and so is stolen tur- 
key, if fattened on corn and dough." 

And now the end of the Confederacy draws near. 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 193 

General Johnston resumes command, and the men march 
with prouder step. The army is hastening through Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, and South Carolina. When we reached the 
pine woods of North Carolina, for a few days' rest, the whole 
army was nervous. At night the men gathered and marched 
from one General's headquarters to another, calling for speeches. 
Bates, and Brown, and many others, spoke. Cheatham would 
dodge when his men came for him. But one evening they sur- 
rounded his tent — no one under a Brigadier then had a tent — 
and called on him for a speech. He came out greatly embar- 
rassed, and said, "Boys, I have gained great reputation as a 
fighter, but the credit belongs to you, not to me." And then 

you could hear all around you, "D n if old Frank can't beat 

'em all speaking." 

"We have been in many tight places, but none where you ever 
failed me or failed your country. How many brave men have 
fallen, your decimated ranks attest." And the General's eyes 
filled; and the tears ran down the faces of his veterans. 

This was his speech. 

There came to us here, one of the Generals from Charles- 
ton, I think Sibley was his name, who was very short of stat- 
ure, and very fat. The men at once dubbed him But Cut — in 
allusion to his resemblance to the first cut of a fallen tree. As 
General Sibley would ride through the regiment he was hailed 
with "Good morning Gen. ButCut" or "Here goes But Cut." To 
the honor of the General, be it said, he did not show temper, but 
smiled pleasantly, and enjoyed the joke. 

Soon we are hastening to the last battle of the war — Ben- 
tonville. As we marched past Gen. Johnson's headquarters, a 
joyous yell was heard along the whole line. The firing is hot 
in front. The enemy had almost surrounded us having forced 
our line in the form of a horse shoe, leaving only the open end 
of the shoe unguarded. To close this opening was attempted. 
And here that accomplished soldier and great Captain W. H. 
Hardee, in person, at the head of a Texas brigade of Cavalry, 
charged the line of Federal infantry and drove them back, when 
the Nineteenth with others, double quicked to prevent a inoc- 
cupation. The retreat of the foe was so precipitate that they 
left all of their picks and shovels, of which we took possession, 
and at once threw up earth works. 



194 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

That night, however, we moved out, and the next day came 
the news of Lee's surrender. This, with the assassination of 
Lincoln, filled our hearts with sorrow. Soon the surrender 
came. Sixty-four men, yes, and what men! remnant of the 
glorious Nineteenth of '61, lined up for the last time, and with 
tears of sorrow, furled forever the tattered flag, which they had 
so bravely borne through so many battles. 

Just here, permit me to say a word in justice to our faith- 
ful field band, and our chief musician, W. J. Worsham, the 
author of this book. He called the men into line at the first 
roll-call, and he called the men to every duty, and to battle, 
during the eventful four years of the war. He never failed to 
call them at the very moment wanted, but one time ; then the 
men were tired and weary after a long day's inarch, and until 
ten o'clock at night, before a halt was made. The Colonel gave 
him orders to call the regiment promptly at three o'clock in the 
morning, but he did not make the call until three-thirty. 
Remarkable promptness for four years service. 

Let us call over the list of battles: Barboursville, Wild 
Cat, Fishing Creek, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Baton Rouge, Murfrees- 
borough, Chicamauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face, Resaca, 
Adairsville, Cartersville, New Hope Church, Dallas, Kennesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station, Jones- 
boro, Altoona, Dal ton, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville, 
Anthony's Hill, Sugar Creek, Bentonville, in every one of 
which, it illustrated the alertness, and steady courage of South- 
ern manhood, the proud independence and dash of men who 
fought for the constitution of their fathers, as written and in- 
terpreted by the highest judicature of government they estab- 
lished, from the days of '76, to the beginning of the war between 
the states; and with a devotion and magnificent elan never 
excelled, if ever equalled, in the annals of war — 600,000 
men against 1,827,980 from the North and West— 600,000 
against 454,415 (counting the negro soldiers) from the South 
itself, 600,000 against 2,778,304.* 

And yet, for four years, these sons of a proud ancestry, of 
Revolutionary sires — fought all these mighty hosts to maintain 
the government of the fathers of the Republic fought with 



*Note. — These figures are taken from the United States Adjutant Gen- 
eral's office of date July 6th, 18G5. 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 195 

matchless valor and victory, until worn to fragments. And is 
it to be said, that these men were rebels against the govern- 
ment of the heroes of '761 This will not be the verdict ot 
history. On the contrary, that verdict will be, that the South 
fought to maintain the government and uphold the Constitu- 
tion of '76, and those who fought to change that government, 

and did change it, these were the . But the war is 

over. The Stars and Stripes float unchallenged from Caribou 
to Key West; and from Cape Cod to the Golden Grate; 
and all of us rejoice in it. We glory in the peace, pros- 
perity, and happiness we enjoy under its ample folds. 
None will quicker, and with more loving devotion, spring 
to its defense, if attacked, than the sons of those who fought 
and fell for the South. 

The war is over in the hearts of all the people, North and 
South, East and West. 

It is a matter for congratulation that the survivors of this 
600,000, returning to the peaceful walks of life, have illustrated 
their sterling qualities in all the avenues of civic life and duty. 
They all went to work to rehabilitate their country, made deso- 
late by the awful destructions and wreck of war. They taught 
their children to love their country, and they, and their child- 
ren, on all occasions have heretofore acted well their part as 
citizens and soldiers of the great Republic — ample pledge, if 
pledge were needed — that for the future, they will exemplify 
the highest type of good citizenship. 

Tennessee can point with special pride to her Confederate 
soldiers. None braver than her sons ever marched to battle. 
She had 110,000 men in the Confederate Army, nearly one-fifth 
of the whole Confederate Army. And in the battle of Chica- 
mauga; one of the greatest battles of history, she had, I think 
the record shows, 58 regiments and battalions. And she will 
always cherish with just pride, the memory of their heroic con- 
duct — their courage, and their high achievements. But she 
recognizes that peace has come, and that her destiny is with 
the future, not with the past. She echoes the sentiment: 

"Fold up the banner, smelt the guns, 
Love rules, her gentle purpose runs, 
A mighty mother turns in tears, 
The pages of her battle years, 
Lamenting all her fallen sons." 



196 THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE. 

She points with pride to the deeds of those who have shown 
themselves worthy sons of this indestructible State of our 
indissoluble Union. Thus far only, Tennessee lingers in the 
past — proud of her heroic dead. She would garner their glori- 
ous deeds. For the rest, she moves forward to meet that great 
destiny "The Future" surely has in store for her. 

By permission of the author, I add this chapter to his most 
excellent and interesting history. 

C. W. HEISKELL, 
Last Colonel of the Nineteenth Tennessee 
Confederate Infantry. 




APPENDIX 



A general report of the Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment at its 
organization in June, 1861, and at the close of the war, 
April, 1865, showing the number of men and what became 
of them. Commissioned officers are not included in this 
report. 



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17 


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104 


15 


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36 


20 


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103 


11 


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18 


4 


8 


52 


20 


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E 


106 


24 


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8 


20 


19 


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93 


44 


29 


5 


36 


18 


6 


8 


40 


34 


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110 


49 


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13 


35 


21 


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94 


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110 


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100 


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16 


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1,017 


280 


290 


74 


294 


200 


70 


100 


552 


205 


64 



Total number 1,297. 

There were a number of our men who were wounded several 
times, and if we count each wound the men received as one 
wounded, which really was the case, then there were at least 
six hundred wounded. 

Again, several of our men were lost in battle, and we never 
knew whether they were killed or wounded and captured, for 
we never heard of them again, and they were put down as 
missing. 



IDS 



APPENDIX. 



CASUALTIES. 



Report giving the Names and Places of those who were Killed, 

Wounded, Captured and Died in the Regiment, giving 

the Company to which they belonged. 



Names of Men. Co. 

Burson, James D B 

Watts, Samuel A 

Biddle, A. M A 

Bailey, William B 

Deaderick, J. W B 

Dodson, B. H E 

McLain, Thomas K 



Battles. 

Knoxville 



Remarks. 



Died 



Powell, Lieut. Robert K. . Barboursville . ..Killed. 



Jordan, George C Camp Zollicoft'er Died. 

Cressell, John C " 

Graham, Geo. W C Mill Springs Died. 

Hull, Lieut. G. W C. " " " . 

Jordan, John C " " . 

Barger, W. H C " 



Dunlap, William .A 

Powers, James A 

Conley, Lieut. Joseph B 

Carlton, James B 

Baker, John C 

Vernon, Abner C 

Harr, Martin C 

Baker, Lafayette C 

Smith, Joseph D 

Campbell, James D 

Short, R. P D 

Roller, David D 

Webb, James C 

Clemonson, Charley .E 

Vestal, Billie E 

Crozier, R. C E 



Fishing' Creek 



Killed 

Wounded. 

Killed 

Captured 

Wounded — Captured. 

" -Died 
Wounded— Captured— Died 
Killed 
Wounded. 



-Died 



Killed 

Wounded. 

Captured 



CASUALTIES. 



199 



Names of Men. Co. 

Meroney, J. N E . 

Carlton, Lieut. James F G. 

Cox, Samuel . . G . 

Middleton, Sergt. M H 

Edgeman, S. G H. 

Carmack, Isaac I . 

Welch, Leander I 

Woodall, Josiah I . 

Carmack, Carroll K 

Money ham, ..K. 

Johnson, Andy G .K 



Battles. Remarks. 

Fishing Creek, Ky Wounded 

" .... Killed 



Wounded. 
.Killed... 

Wounded. 
.Killed 



Wounded,. 



Wounded. 



Wounded. 



Killed 
Wounded. 



Godby, John .'. . . A . . Shiloh, Tenn Killed 

Powers, James ...A. " " 

Rowe, Louis. .A.. " " 

Bains, John M B.. " " 

Willette, Capt. Zeb. T....B.. " 

Deadrick, Capt. J. G. . . . B " 

Wright, Thomas B " 

Gaby, Sam B . . " 

King, E. R B.. " 

Webb, Lieut. Ben . ...C. " 

Vance, Sam, Sergt C. . " 

Easterling, John C . . " 

White, John C. " 

Roberts, Jack C " 

Piles, John C. " 

O'Conner, John C. " 

Erps, Adrian C . " 

Johns, B. J C. " 

Gray, Al C " 

Harr, Robert C. . "' 

Johnson, B. J. S C. " 

Roberts, Sam C . " 

Roberts, Isaac C . " 

Lyons, Dan C . . " 

Pactol, Sam C. . " 

Cooper, Geo. A C. " 

Boofer, Wm. R D.. " 

Bradford, M D.. " 

Lincoln, John. .......... .D. . " 

Newport, J. F. M D.. " 

Shaver, J. A D. . " 

Ward, William D.. " 

Wallace, Lieut. J. A D.. " 

Kennen , M D . . " 

Cummings, Col. D. H. . . . . " 

Fulkerson, Major Abe — . " 
Doak, Sergt. -Ma.]'. Mel 



Wounded— Died 
Killed 



Killed . . . 

Wounded . 
Killed.. . 



Wounded . 



Killed 
Wounded. 



Wounded 



200 



APPENDIX. 



Wounded. 



Killed. 



.Wounded 
.Killed.... 



.Wounded. 
.Killed. .. 
. Wounded 



Names of Men. Co. Battles. Remarks. 

Curran, Conley E..Shiloh, Tenn Killed 

Bradley, Sam E.. " " 

Cunningham, S. H ..E.. " " 

Leath, T. J E.. " 

Craig, Al ..E 

Nance, Peter D ..E.. 

Allen, Ceo. W F.. " 

Forner, Isaac F. . " 

Sims, Lieut. J. M F 

Wayler, Jackson G. . " 

York, Charley G " 

Rhea, Lieut. Jas. A G.. " 

Chase, J. T G.. " 

Millhorn, John G.. " 

Potterfield, William ....(J 

Duncan, Samuel G . " 

Hawk, Lieut. H. D G 

Cheek, E. W H 

Buckuer, John H " 

Wilkins, Lieut. Doc . H 

Walker, ('apt. T. H I 

Moid-ague, John R I " 

Brewer, Clark .1 " 

Wolfenberge, K. S .K " 

Courtney, M. ............ .K " " 

Etter. C. C K " 

Keeling, Frank .K " " 

Carmack, John K " Wounded 

Speck, L. P K " Wounded— Captured 



Killed 
Wounded 

Killed 



Wounded 
Killed 



McKinney, William 


A Corinth. Miss 


Died 


DePue, - 


B 


Died 


Gray, James 


B 


Died 


Hampton, William 


.B 


Died 


Salts, John 


B 


Died 


Flenor, Pete 


C 


Died 


Roberts, Sam 


c 


Died 


Cook, John 


c 


Died 


Webb, Lieut. Ben 


c 


Died 


Harr, Robert 


c 


Died 


Grant, John M . 


G 


Died 


Burnette, James 


...H 


Died 


Duglass, H. D 


.H 


Died 


Graves, Washington 


.H 


Died 


Williams, C. F 


H 


Died 


Foster, D. L 


..H 


Died 


Hull, J. M 


I 


Died 


Melton, A. J 


I 


Died 


Parker, L. D 


I 


Died 



Names of Men. 

Moore, John (' 

Bruce, William 



Co. 

G 



Landgrace, E. R 


K 


Cross, A. J 


.K 


Duncan. William 


K 


Drake, Samuel 


K 


King, David 


.G 


Foust, A. T 


... A 


Travis, Benjamin. 


B 


Loftis, Richard 


D 


Seamore, John . 


G 


Hamilton, J. W 


H 


Melton, J. C 


.H 


Sexton, S. H 


H 


Terry, < Iharles 


.1 


Shaw. ( Iharles 


.1 


Nail, Lieut. N. P 


A 


Wright, Thomas 


B 


White, Emit 


c 


Sims, Lieut. J. M 


F 



CASUALTIES. 201 

Battles. Remarks. 

Boonsville, Miss., Died 

Mobile, Ala Died 

Brownsville, Miss Died 

Died 

Died 
Died 

Canton, " Died 

Vicksbarg, Miss .Died 

Captured 

Captured 

Died 

Died 

Died. 

Died. 

Died. 

Died. 

Baton Rouge, La Wounded 



Killed 
Wounded. 



Flennor, Andrew 



C .Meridian. Miss Died 



Jarnagin, Maj. R. A 




Murfreesboro,Tenn. Killed 


Curran, (>. S 


A 




" 


McGhee, J. M 


A 




' " 


Burkhearte. Wm 


.A 




' '■ ... 


Childress, 1). M. 


A 




" 


Aikin, S. B. 


B 




' " 


Foster, Samuel 


B 




' " 


Gaby, Criss. 


.B 




' " 


Hutson, Andy 


B 




Wounded. 


Brown, Corp. Clabe 


.B 




Killed 


King, E. R 


B 




Wounded. 


Easterly, John L 


C 




Killed 


Keller, George 


...C 




' " 


Erps, Adrin 


.C 




' " 


Gaba, John 


C 




' " 


Burnette, Frank 


c 




Wounded. 


Smith, John 


C 




' " . . 


Roller, George 


c 




Killed 


Holly, Wm . . 


c. 




Wounded. 


Frazier, Capt. J. G 


D 




Killed , 



202 



APPENDIX. 



Names of Men. Co. Battles. 

Colville, R. W D.Murfreesboro,Tenn, 

Brataber, John D 

Carson, Sam .D 

Loftis, W. D D 

Mc< !larin, Jasper D 

Mitchell, John . .D 

Rhea, William .D 

Rudd, A. M D 

Earnest, Ed E 

Sloan, J. H .E 

Swann, J. H .E 

Abernathy, Lieut. S. B .E 

Kincaid, Creed E 

Ellison, A. J F 

McKissack, J. R .F 

Skelton, H. H F 

Williams, P. A F 

Sims, Lieut. J. M F 

Tipton. J. A G 

Barger, J. R .G 

Hamilton, S. Rhea .G 

Rhea, Wm. R .G 

Bowles, David R .G 

Ford, Martin G 

Roller, Wm .G 

Russell, W. R. G 

Ford, Alford. .G 

I Iressell, Van G 

Horn, Simeon G 

Hilton, James. .G 

Hale, Elija G 

Archer, William .H 

Stansberry, Y. A H 

Smith, Thomas H 

Strange, James .H 

Basket, John H 

Grogan, Wash .H 

Alexander, Tom H 

Kincaid, Pat . H 

At the Rock Wall I " (1) 

I " (G) 

Fudge, Charles J K 

Marshall, E. W .K 

Miller, Lieut. W. B .K 

Jackson, E. H .K 

Wax, William K 

Miller, Charles K 

Carmack, John K 

Hutimaster, Sergt. J. T K 



Remarks. 



Wounded. 



Killed 

Wounded. 
Killed 



Wounded. 
Killed 



Wounded. 
Killed 



Wounded. 
Killed. . 
Wounded. 



Killed 



Wounded. 



Killed 



Wounded. 
Killed 



Wounded. 
Killed 



Wounded, 

Wounded — ( Japtured 



CASUALTIES. 



20H 



Names of Men. Co. 

Hefiin, J. M A 

Cromwell, Martin .B 

Humphries, 0. M .B 

Smith, Lieut. A. Win (' 

Rhea, Lieut. R, G P 

Ford, A. J .G 

Beard, George .G 

Payne, J. J .G 

Lauderback, Felix .K 



Battles. Remarks. 

Murfreesboro Pike. Wounded. 
Died 



Captured 
Killed 
Wounded. 
Died. 



Wideman, J. P. 
Tipton, Lieut. K. J B 

Dakin, Charles B 

Morgan, Andrew C 

Martin, Harris .F 

Micheals, J. H. .F 

Stowe, Richard F 

Raney, J. R F 

Sharp, F. E F 

Smith, Ransom F 

Hashberger, J. D .K 



A Chattanooga, Tenn Died. 



Killed 
Died 



B 
.C 

.C 

c 



Deadriek, Capt. J. G 
Heiskell, Ma.j. C. W 
Wright, Thomas 
MePherson, Frank 
Holly, William 

Cooper, John 

Jolley, W. F .D 

Frazier, Capt. S. J. A .D 
Barnette, J. W . . D 

Brataber, John D 

DeLonas, Wm D 

Kelley, W. A D 

Mitchell, John D 

Renfroe, James .D 

Tresby, John D 

Lackey, Capt. Wm. W .E 

Traynor, Mike E 

Swann, Wm. H E 

Blair. Capt. R. L G 

Rhea, John H G 

Hawley. Martin .G 

Russell, W. R G 

Frazier, Clark G 

Hawk, Lieut. H. D G 

Sims. Lieut. J. M F 

Grisham, James H 

Cook, William H 



B.Chickamauga,Ga Wounded 



Captured 

—Died 

Killed 

Wounded— Captured 



Killed. 



Wounded 

Killed. . 
Captured 

Wounded 



Killed. 



204 




APPENDIX. 




Names of Men. 


Co. 


Battles. 


Remarks. 


Chase, Harrison 


G 


Chickamangajia < 'aptured — Died 


McAndry, J. W 


K 






Killed 


Looney, Ben 

Carmack, John 


K 








K 






Wounded 


Johnson, Andy G 


.K 






" 


Stover. Jake 


.K 






Killed. 


Bruden, J. M 


A 


Mission 


Kidge,T 


■in) <'aptured — Died 


Moore, John, (< lol's Bro 


).A 






Captured. . . . 


Moore, Lieut.-Col. B. F 


A 






Killed. 


Moore, James 


.B 






" 


Bowers, James 


B 






< 'aptured 


Smith, ('apt. Win 


J' 






Wounded 


Allison, Robert 


C 






" 


Burnette, Frank 


c 






" 


Lyons, Dan 


.c 






( Japtured 


Fields. Join) 


c 






Wounded. 


Johnson, M. S 


.D 






Killed. 


McRussell, II noli 


D 






" 


Ford, James 


G 






Captured. 


Holley, Wash B 


G 






Wounded 


Ensinger, Thomas 


H 






" 


Johnson, Andy <i 


.K 






' ; 


Jackson, Lea. 


D 


Dalton 


Ga 


Died 


Rush, William 


D 






" 


Rose, C. F 


.D 






" 


Sampson, S. S. 


..I) 






>' 


Wright, Calvin . 


D 






" 


Wood, Talbut 


.<; 






" 


Roller, William 


.G 






" 


Hoard, J. J 


.K 






" 


Talley, C. T . .- 


K 








Wright, J. M 


D 


Resaea 


, < ra 


Killed. . 


Rhea, Win. R 


.G 


* i 




Wounded 


Moody, Tobe 


G 


" 




Killed. 



Sherman, John B 

Oliver, William G 

Stri elder, Rube G 

Bowers', William .G 

Bailey, John .G 

Orick,fM K 

Banard, William K 

Mee, William. K 



Adairsville, Ga. Killed. 



Wounded 



Killed 
Wounded 



CASUALTIES. 



205 



Names of Men. 

Holt, G. W 
Miller, T. L 
Burrows, Henry 

Hale, Elija 

Breen, Daniel 
Hutson, Andy 
Gentry, Joshua 
Vestal, Billie 



Co. Battles. 

.K Dallas, (la .Wounded 
K 

K 

G New Hope, Ga " 

G " " .... 
B 

I) '• " 

E " " 



Remarks. 



Moore. S. I) B 

Bradley, Ben .D 

Barnett, Frank D 

Cantrall, James .D 

White, John . E 

Kincaid, C. F .E 

McRoberts, J .F 

Hood, L F 

Brown, John F 

Cornette, Leander F 

DeMurr, A. J .F 

McJenkins, Solomon .F. 

Swann, S. G. .F 

Thomas. <\ W F 

Watts, William F 

Chase, Walter ( i 

Pugh, Joe H 

Spears. John K 



Kennesaw,Ga Wounded. 

Wounded —Died 



Killed 



Wounded . 
Wounded— Died 



< 'aptured 
Killed 



Deadrick, Capt. J. G . . B Peachtree Creek, Ga Wounded 
Johnson, Andy G K " " 



Walker, Col. F. M 

Templeton, John A 

Long 1 , John .A 

Duitt, Tom A 

Bookard, Silas .A 

Brabson, Lieut. Thomas B 
Deadrick, Capt. .1. G . B 

McCrary, H B 

Yorkley, Mike. . C 

Kennedy, Thomas . C 

King, William C 

Kline, Thomas ,C 

Colville, .Lieut. K. W D 

Dyer, B. H D 

Vestal, Billie E 

Ramsey, John E 

Lyons, James A E 

Sharp, Lieut. J. F F 



2d July, Ga Killed 



Wounded. 



Killed 



Wounded. 
Killed. ... 
Wounded. 



Killed 



206 



APPENDIX. 



Names of Men. 



Co. 



Battles. 



Rhea, Robert J G 2 

Godsey, C. W G 

Farris, Sam G 

Chamberlain, George. G 

Waggoner, George G 

MeDermott, ("apt. PaulH.H 
Richards, Scrgt. John H 



2d July 



Remarks. 



Killed 
Wounded 
Killed . 



Wounded 
Killed. 



Epperson John B In Atlanta, Ga. Died. 
Fulkerson, George .B. " " " 



Hodge, James 



1', 



Brown, Sergt. Isaac 

Majors, C. C 

Johnson, Andy G 
Richards, N 



D Jonesboro. Ga Wounded.. 
.D " . " . 

.K " . 

K 



Wyman, William 
Pile, John 



H Lovejoy, Ga.. Killed. 

H " Wounded 



Coughlin, Pete A 

Bowers, James B 

Hutson, Andy B 

Morgan, John .C. 

Knox, W. G I) 

Hale, G. W D 

Henry, S. R D 

Kelley, W. A D 



Franklin, 



Meroney, J.N 


,E 


Waller, Lum 


.E 


Hieks, Joe S 


.G 


Bowers, Billie 


G 


Bates, Robert 


G 


Whaley, 1). C 


.G 


Roller, George 


.G 


Holly, Wash B 


G 


Mayheld, Jack 


g 


Drake, ( reorge 


G 


Gunning, Joe. 


G 


Hawk, Lieut. H. I) 


G 


Knox, George 


H 


Alexander. Tom 


H 


Phipps, Win. F 


H 


Hipsher, William 


H 


Hale, Lieut. S. Frank 


H 


Grisham, James 


H 


Wiggins, James 


H 


Russell, John 


.H 



Tenn Wounded 

.Killed 



Killed . 

Wounded 



Killed 

Wounded— Captured 



Killed 
Wounded 



Killed, 
Wounded 



Killed . 



CASUALTIES. 



207 



Names of Men. 



Co. 



Etter, Lieut. W. W K 

Fulkerson , Sgt-Maj . Arthur . K 
Buran, H. S. .K 

McCarty, W. N .K 

Looney, Marshall .K 

Webster, E K 

Potts, Edgar K 

Shipley, Ben.. K 



Battles. 

Franklin, Tenn. Wounded 

Killed 

Wounded 



Remarks. 



Killed 



Wounded. 



Smith, Capt. Win .C Nashville, Tenn. Captured. . 

Sullivan, Dan .C " " 

John, B. J .(' " Wounded. 

Henderson, Pink E " Captured 

Meroney, W. E " Wounded— Captured 

Jordan, Nathan C. Columbia, Tenn. Wounded— Captured. 



Watts, Samuel 
Biddle, A. M. 
Bagley, William 
Deadrick, J. W 
Dodson, B. H 
McClain, Thos 



.A Knoxville, Tenn. Died 

A 

B 
.B 

E 

K 



Cox, William ..C. 

Carroll, Maden I ' 

Cross, Sam C. 

Crawford, William C 

Crawford, Richard C 



Unaccounted For 



208 APPENDIX . 



LIFE SKETCH 



OP 



BRIG. GEN. FRANCIS M. WALKER. 



General F. M. Walker, the second Colonel of the Old 
Ninetieth Tennessee Confederate Regiment, a brave and gallant 
soldier, who gave up his life for the South in one of the fiercest 
battles of the war, was a Kentuckian by birth, but a Tennes- 
seean by adoption. 

He moved to Eastern Tennessee in 1851, and later made 
his home in Chattanooga in 1854. General Walker was at that 
time a veteran of the Mexican war, having served as Lieutenant 
in one of the Kentucky regiments. 

At the beginning of the great war between the States, 
General Walker cast his lot with the people he loved, and gave 
to them the benefit of his military experience, his labor and his 
life. He raised a company of infantry in Chattanooga, and was 
assigned to the Nineteenth Tennessee Confederate Regiment, 
and in the organization of the regiment was elected Lieutenant- 
Colonel. 

General Walker was with the regiment at Cumberland Gap, 
was with the regiment on the trip to Goose Creek salt works in 
Eastern Kentucky, at Barboursville, and in the Fishing Creek 
fight, which culminated so disastrously to our forces. It was 
his regiment (the Old Nineteenth) that opened the battle and 
was being successfully pushed, until the order to cease firing 
was given by General Zollicoffer. In the battle of Shiloh he 
fought with the regiment, then in Maney's Brigade and under 
General Breckenridge, where he and the regiment won praises 
in the reports. 

In the reorganization in 1862, he was made Colonel of the 
regiment, and with the regiment, still under General Brecken- 



LIFE SKETCH. 209 

ridge, was sent to Vicksburg, Mississippi, and took part in the 
battle of Baton Rouge, August the 5th, 1862. 

General Walker commanded his regiment in the battle of 
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, December the 5th, 1862, in A. P. 
Stewart's Brigade and Cheatham's Division, and was com- 
mended by General Stewart for noble service; his regiment 
having suffered more than any other in the brigade. 

At Chickamauga, as at Murfreesboro, the Old Nineteenth 
suffered the heaviest loss of the brigade, and General Strahl 
said : "Colonel F. M. Walker and Lieutenant-Colonel B. F. Moore 
acted with such coolness and skill as to sustain their gallant 
regiment in an undaunted fight, though nearly a third of its 
number fell." 

In that long one hundred days and nights continuous battle, 
from Dalton to Atlanta, Georgia, Colonel Walker was conspicu- 
ous for bravery. 

On the Kennesaw line Colonel Walker's regiment was 
transferred to Maney's Brigade, with Colonel Walker in com- 
mand, and which he led until he fell in battle. In the battle of 
Kennesaw Colonel Walker won promotion. 

July the 21st Colonel Walker received his commission as 
Brigadier General, but had not been assigned to duty as such. 
He fell in the battle of July the 22d, leading his regiment and 
his brigade. So ended the life of a noble, brave, Christian 
soldier. 



210 APPENDIX. 



LIFE SKETCH 



OF 



COLONEL C W. HEISKELL. 



Colonel Carrick W. Heiskell was born ten miles west 
of Knoxville, Tennessee, July 25, 1836. He is the son of 
Frederick S. Heiskell, a native of Virginia, who made his home 
at Knoxville in 1814; was one of the founders of the "Knoxville 
Register" and its editor for more than twenty years. Through 
his mother, Eliza Brown, Colonel Heiskell is of Scotch-Irish 
descent, and of kin to Colonel Joseph Brown, soldier of the 
Revolution. He was educated at the University of Tennessee 
and Maryville College, graduating at the latter school. 

He studied law at Rogersville, Tennessee, was admitted to 
the Bar in 1857. At the beginning of the war he enlisted as a 
private in Company K, Nineteenth Tennessee Confederate 
Infantry, the first company raised in Hawkins county, and at 
the organization of the regiment in June, 1861, at Knoxville, he 
was elected Captain of Company K. He commanded his com- 
pany through Zollicoffer's campaign in Eastern Kentucky, was 
in the engagement at Barboursville and Fishing Creek. After 
the battle of Shiloh, in the reorganization of the regiment he 
was re-elected Captain of the company. Just after the battle 
of Murfreesboro, in which Major R. A. Jarnagin was killed, 
Captain Heiskell was promoted to Major of the regiment. 

At the battle of Chickamauga, where the Old Nineteenth 
suffered a much heavier loss than any other regiment of Strain" s 
Brigade, General Strahl said: "Most of the field officers on my 
right were dismounted by having their horses shot from under 
them, and Major Heiskell, a very gallant officer, was severely 
wounded in the foot." The wound was so grave that several 
months had gone by before he was able to rejoin his regiment, 
and then on crutches. 



LIFE SKETCH. 211 

Some time after the death of Colonel Moore, and before 
the death of Colonel Walker, Major Heiskell was made Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel of the regiment — I think in January, 1864. 

After the battle of Jonesboro, Georgia, Atlanta campaign, 
and death of Colonel Walker, Heiskell was promoted to Colonel 
of the regiment. 

At the battle of Jonesboro, Georgia, although not able for 
duty he remained with the regiment through the battle, but the 
wound giving him so much trouble, could not remain longer. He 
next joined the regiment at Columbia, Tennessee, after the 
battle of Nashville, and took command of Strahl's Brigade, 
which he kept until the close of the war. 

Colonel Heiskell was an eye-witness to the dispute between 
Generals Cheatham and Forrest, as to who should cross the 
Columbia river first, the two generals having met at the river 
at the same time. He took part in and witnessed the fight of 
the hungry and bare-footed boys at Anthony Hill and Sugar 
Creek. He commanded the brigade in the gallant charge under 
Hardee at the battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, in which 
General Hardee lost his son. 

At the close of the war, Colonel Heiskell moved to Memphis, 
Tennessee, where he resumed the practice of his profession. 
He was on the Bench as Judge of the Circuit Court for eight 
years, and served as City Attorney for four years. 



212 APPENDIX. 



LIFE SKETCH 



OF 



COLONEL JAMES G. DEADRICK. 



James Gallitzine Deadeick was born April 25th, 1838, at 
Cheek's X Roads in Jefferson county, Tennessee, and moved 
to Jonesboro with his parents in early childhood. 

Was educated at Washington College, Tennessee, finishing 
his college course at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky; 
studied law with his father, Judge J. W. Deadrick (who was 
afterwards Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Tennessee for 
fourteen years). His mother was Miss Adeline McDowell, a 
grand-daughter of Isaac Shelby, Kentucky's first Governor. 

He entered the Confederate States army at the beginning 
of hostilities, as First Sergeant of Company B, Nineteenth 
Tennessee Regiment, and at the organization of the regiment 
was elected Third Lieutenant of his company. 

At the reorganization of the regiment in 1862 he was elected 
Captain of the company; in I860 he was promoted to Major, and 
in October, before Hood's campaign into Tennessee, in 1864, he 
was made Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. 

At Bentonville, North Carolina, he received his commission 
as Lieutenant-Colonel in the Provisional Army of the Confed- 
erate States, with orders to report to General Joseph E. 
Johnston, and was by him placed in command of the Army 
Post at Smithfield Station, North Carolina, and continued in 
command of the Army Post until some time after the army 
reached Greensboro, North Carolina. 

A few days before the surrender he was ordered to Deep 
River, a few miles from Greensboro, and was there when the 
army surrendered. 

After the surrender he spent a year in Illinois and Kentucky, 



LIFE SKETCH. 213 

after which time he returned home and resumed the practice of 
law in Blountville, Tennessee, where he remained but a few 
months, going thence to Bristol, Tennessee. 

He was married September the 30th, 1868, to Miss Lizzie J. 
Sayers of Pulaski county, Virginia. To them two children 
were born — a daughter, Miss Ella H., and a son, H. S. Deadrick. 

In February, 1869, he returned to Jonesboro, his old home, 
and remained there in the active practice of his profession until 
January, 1882, when he moved with his family to California, 
settling in Carpinteria, Santa Barbara county, where he pur- 
chased a small ranch and set it out in English walnuts, which 
have grown to full maturity, and he is now enjoying the fruits 
thereof. 

Colonel Deadrick lost his wife January, 1888, and has 
remained single. 

He was badly wounded at the battle of Shiloh from a falling 
limb cut oft' by a shell from the enemy's artillery. Was wounded 
at the battle of Chickamauga in the neck from a minnie ball, 
and at the battle of Peach-tree Creek was wounded in the arm 
by a piece of shell. 

The morning before the battle of the 22d July, Colonel 
Deadrick and General Walker were standing together discuss- 
ing the coming battle; Walker had his commission as Brigadier 
General in his pocket, and showed it to Colonel Deadrick. 
Deadrick remarked, " Then I must take the regiment into the 
fight." General Walker said, "No, I have not been assigned 
and will lead the regiment in the fight." 

In a few moments the battle opened and they were ordered 
into the engagement, and soon General Walker was killed. 
Colonel Deadrick received a bayonet thrust in the right hand. 
He received also other slight wounds, but not sufficient to 
inconvenience him. 



214 APPENDIX. 



LIFE SKETCH. 



OP 



MAJOR JOHN H. HANNAH. 



Major J. H. Hannah was born in Polk county, Tennessee, 
May the 2d, 1838. He came of Old Virginia Revolutionary stock. 

His parents, John F. and Grace Telford Hannah, moved 
from Virginia and settled in Polk county, Tennessee, where 
Major Hannah was born. When the war broke out in 1861 his 
father, then seventy-nine years old, with his five sons, one of 
whom was Major J. H. Hannah, joined the Confederate army. 
His father raised a company of volunteers and was elected 
Captain of the company. The company was assigned to the 
Old Nineteenth Tennessee, but his father being too old resigned. 
At the organization of the regiment in June, 1861, J. H. Hannah 
was elected Captain of the company, and was assigned as Com- 
pany F in the regiment. He served in all the Kentucky 
campaign under General Zollicoffer. Captain Hannah was in 
the Fishing Creek fight, and also in the battle of Shiloh. 

In the reorganization of the regiment after the battle of 
Shiloh, he was re-elected Captain of his company, which showed 
their esteem for him. He remained Captain of the company 
until October, 1864, when he was promoted to Major of the 
regiment. 

Major Hannah surrendered with the regiment near Greens- 
boro, North Carolina, in May, 1865. In one of the battles (I 
believe it was Shiloh) he received a severe blow from a piece 
of shell on the breast, which ultimately resulted in lung trouble, 
from which he died at his home in Oliver Springs, Tennessee, 
January the 11th, 1880. 

Major Hannah married Miss Lillie Gerding in Louisville, 
Kentucky, in June, 1867, where he was engaged in the whole- 
sale commission business. Two sons were born to them, 
Gerald G. and Harvey H. Hannah, the gifted orator of Tennes- 
see, who now lives at Oliver Springs, Tennessee. 



KUKVIVOBS. 215 



LIST OF SURVIVORS 

OF THE OLD NINETEENTH TENNESSEE CONFEDERATE 
REGIMENT, AND THEIR PRESENT ADDRESS. 



Alaway, J. H Riceville, Tenn. 

Anderson, H. G Denver, Col. 

Anderson, Dave Knoxville, Tenn. 

Brewer, Clark Memphis, Tenn. 

Brabson, T. M Weatherford, Texas. 

Bishop, Noah, Morristown, Tenn. 

Buran, Henry Rogersville, Tenn. 

Bernard, Mitchel Chimney Top, Tenn. 

Bailey, John Blountville, Tenn. 

Barger, George Indian Springs, Tenn. 

Carlton, Robert Magazine, Ark. 

Carlton, A Thorn, Tenn. 

Culliny, Mike Knoxville, Tenn. 

Colville, R. W Hill City, Tenn. 

Chase, John Fordtown, Tenn. 

Chase, Isaac Kindrick Creek, Tenn. 

Chamberlain, Charles Bluff City, Tenn. 

Carney, Thomas Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Craig, Rev. J. N Optimus, Ark. 

Crawford, J. R Bristol, Tenn. 

Cox, Sam Arcadia, Tenn. 

Cressell, William Gross, Tenn. 

Deadrick, Dot Unaka Spring, Tenn. 

Deadrick, Col. J. G Carpinteria, Cal. 

Doak, Ned Nashville, Tenn. 

Dyer, J. A Johnson City, Tenn. 

Frazier, Capt. S. J. A Hill City, Tenn. 

Frazier, T. C Blountville, Tenn. 

Ford, Henry Fordtown, Tenn. 

Fulkerson, Maj. A Bristol, Tenu. 

Graves, Geo. A Springdale, Ark. 



216 APPENDIX. 

Heiskell, Col. C. W Memphis, Tenn. 

Henderson, R. P Talladega, Ala. 

Henderson, Ab. C Louisville, Tenn. 

Hipsher, William Thorn Hill, Tenn. 

Hawkins, John Graysville, Ga. 

Hardy, J . H Lexington, Ky . 

Havely, Sergt. James H. .Lexington, Ky. 

Hawk, Lieut. H. D Sac, Tenn. 

Hawk, James M Lawson, Tenn. 

Hamilton, W. P Bristol, Tenn. 

Hannah, R. O Washington, Ark. 

Hodge, J. C Morristown, Tenn. 

Hicks, Nathan White's Store, Tenn. 

Johnson, J. R Tate Springs, Tenn. 

Johnson, Andy G New Tazewell, Tenn. 

James, R. P Memphis, Tenn. 

King, Rutledge. White's Store, Tenn. 

Keys, Benjamin Blountville, Tenn. 

Luster, Thomas Walis, Va. 

Lackey, Jack Weatherford, Texas. 

Lyons, Rev. J. A Knoxville, Tenn. 

Mullins, H. B Indian Springs, Tenn. 

Montgomery, P. G Spring Hill, Tenn. 

Meroney, J. N Dark's Mill, Tenn. 

Moore, J. H Lamar, Ark. 

Morrow, J. B Klein, Ala. 

Mason, John Galbraith Sp'gs, Tenn. 

Miller, T. C Rogersville, Tenn. 

Matlock, Henry Riceville, Tenn. 

Norton, Rev. R. W Rockdale, Texas. 

Phipps, Wm Rogersville, Tenn. 

Perry, Clabe Knoxville, Tenn. 

Pickle, Jack Ten Mile, Tenn. 

Powell, Thomas Etonton, Ga. 

Roberts, Hilton Athens, Tenn. 

Rhea, W. R Knoxville, Tenn. 

Rhea, W. L Knoxville, Tenn. 

Rhea, Joe Blountville, Tenn. 

Rhea, John L Blountville, Tenn. 

Roller, G. W Sorrell, Tenn. 

Roller, U. T Childress, Tenn. 

Rains, James Wildwood, Ga. 



SURVIVORS. 217 

Rutledge, Wade Vance's Tank, Tenn. 

Sullins, Rev. David Cleveland, Tenn. 

Snapp, Capt. J. P Blountville, Tenn. 

Snapp, S. H Blountville, Tenn. 

Strickler, Abija Kindrick's Creek, Tenn. 

Strickler, Ruben Kindrick's Creek, Tenn. 

Sims, Capt. J. M Valdosta, Ga. 

Spears, C. C Rogersville, Tenn. 

Standfield, Jesse Knoxville, Tenn. 

Sinkenecht, Dr. S. C Kingston, Tenn. 

Tipton, George Cloverbottom, Tenn. 

Tyner, James Nashville, Tenn. 

Thompson, Joe Kingston, Tenn. 

Ursey, J. R Rossville, Ga. 

Worsham, Dr. W. J Knoxville, Tenn. 

Warren, J. H Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Waller, Capt. J. L Kingston, Tenn. 

Waller, Lnin Windott Falls, Texas. 

Whaley, D. C Kindricks Creek, Tenn. 

Williford, Parson Lyceum, Tenn. 

Williford, Jake Copeville, Texas. 

Wright, Thomas Bristol, Tenn. 

Webb, John Bristol, Tenn. 

Wells, Sam Bull's Gap, Tenn. 



218 



APPENDIX. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 



Company "C," called the " Blountville Guards," was 
organized in Blountville, Sullivan Co., Tennessee, and was 
mustered into the Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment in June, 
1861, at Knoxville, and was composed as follows: 





OFFICERS 








James P. 


Snapp, 


Captain. 


Charles J. 


St. John, 




1st Lieutenant. 


George Hull, 




2d 


1 1 


John M. Jones, 






3d 


i t 


Benjamin 


Webb 






1st Sergeant. 


W. D. Ga 


inmon, 






2d 


1 1 


Robert Hughes, 






3d 


1 1 


A. W. Smith, . 






4th 


t i 


Sam Vance, 






5th 


1 1 


M. J. Miles, . 






1st Corporal. 


L. Snapp, 








2d 


i i 


W. H. Snapp . 






3d 


t i 


S. P. Pectol . 






4th 


i i 




PRIVATES. 






Allison, Robert 


Carden, Columbus 


Goba, John H. 


Burnett, F. W. 


Carr, William 




Gray, Alvin 


Baker, John 


DePue, Samuel 




Graham, Geo. L. 


Baker, Lafayette 


Darnell, James 




Gray, William 


Barger, William 


Erps, Adrin 




Harr, Robert 


Cross, Samuel 


Easterly, John L. 


Hull, Lieut. G. W 


Cross, Elk 


Flenor, William 




Harr, Martin 


Crawford, William 


Flenor, Andy 




Haegin, William R 


Crawford, Dick 


Flenor, Peter 




Harvey, W. C. 


Cooper, George A. 


Flenor, G. W. 




Henderson, B. F. 


Cressell, John 


Fields, John W. 




Hawley, William 


Carroll, Nathan 


Felts, James 




Hawley, James R. 


Cox, Wm. S. 


Goba, Si 


imue 


1 




Hamilton, Samuel 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 



219 



Harr, David 
Irwin, Wm. R. 
Johnson, B. J, G. 
Jordan, John 
Jordan, George 
Jordan, Thomas 
Jordan, Nathan 
King 1 , William 
Kennedy, Thomas 
Love, Winton 
Love, Alford 
Lyons, Daniel 
MePherson, Frank 
Leonard, Mike 
Miles, Lieut. Wm. 
Miles, John 
Miles, Robert 



Mullins, H. B. 
Malone, Jake W. 
Miller, John S. 
Minnick, Ike 
Morgan, Andrew 
Morgan, John 
O'Conner, John 
Pile, John 
Perry, William 
Roller, George 
Roberts, John 
Roberts, Pete 
Roberts, James 
Roberts, Jackson 
Roberts, Sam 
Russell, John 
Smith, John 



Smith, Jonathan 
Sullivan, Dan 
Shaver, Andy M. 
Shay, John 
Spray, Aaron 
Stuffle, J. 
Smith, George 
Snapp, Abram 
Vernon, Abner 
Webb, James 
Webb, John 
Webb, George 
Williams, Wm. 
Yorkley, Mike 
White, John 
White, Emmet 
Pyott, Dr. E. S. 



220 



APPENDIX. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 



Company E, the "Knoxville Grays" as they were called, 
was raised in Knoxville, Tennessee, in May 1861, by Dr. John 
W. Paxton, and enrolled upon the regimental roster of the 
Nineteenth, Tennessee Confederate Regiment, June 10th, 1861. 





OFFICEKS 








Dr. John W. Paxton, 


Captain. 


John M. Miller, 




1st Lieutenant. 


J. R. Graham, 




2d 


i < 


W. W. Lackey, 




3d 


< t 


S. P. Ham 


dlton , 




1st Sergeant. 


R. Pink Henderson, 




2d 


i i 


Joe Pate, 






3d 


>. i 


Joe Story, 






1st Corporal. 


Jas. R. Stephenson, 




2d 


t i 


D. G. Rumsey, 




3d 


1 1 


F. M. Demsey, 




4th 


i i 




PEIVATES. 




• 


Abernathy, S. G. 


Crozier, Bob 




Henley, George 


Bell, Oscar F. 


Craig, Jas. N. 




Hulvey, William 


Boyce, George 


Clemenson, Charles 


Henderson, John 


Bradley, John 


Cuningham, Sam 


H. 


Henderson, Ab C. 


Bradley, Samuel 


Crawford, Harry 




Hickey, N. G. T. 


Brady, Mike 


Davis, John 




House, J. M. 


Bondran, E. H. 


Day, Mike 




Hook, Robert 


Cullaney, Mike 


Doak, Joe A. 




Howard, Tom 


Chamberlain, Tom 


Engledow, Oscar 




Hall, Jake 


Carriger, Nick 


Earnest, Edward 




Hall, Tom 


Callaway, George 


Earnest, Elijah 




Holston, Henry 


Callaway, James 


Evans, John 




Ish, Benj. A. 


Cox, M. D. 


Goodner, Peter 




Jones, Dick 


Cox, J. B. 


Gibson, Edward 




Jarnagin, Rufus A 


Caston, Jno. H. 


Gilmore, V. I 


S. 




Kincaid, C. F. 



ROSTER OV COMPANY E. 



221 



Kincaid, Pat 
Kincaid, John 
Keeland, Fred 
Kuhn, David 
Lackey, A. J. 
Lackey, W. W. 
Lackey, Sam M. 
Lyons, Edward 
Lyons, James A. 
Leath, William 
Leath, Alexander 
Leath, Thomas 
Lyle, John 
Love, Samuel 
Meroney, J. N. 
Meroney, W. Oscar 
McHague, Joe 



McCarney, John 
Moran, Frank 
Nance, Peter D. 
Nelson, Bob 
Osborne, Fielding 
Pate, J' F. 
Perry, Clabe 
Pickle, Jake 
Ryan, John 
Rhodes, Wilson 
Reed, William 
Reed, Brownlow 
Rutherford, Isaac 
Russell, A. P, 
Ross, B. 
Sterchi, A. 
Starks, Jake 



Swann, Harvey 
Seincknett, C. 
Stevens, Walter B. 
Trainor, Mike 
Vestal, Billie 
White, John 
Wright, Thomas 
Waller, Jake L. 
Waller, H. A. 
Waller, Lum 
Waller, George 
Wakenight, W. C. 
Williams, J. N. 
Walker, Robert 
Wilkins, Charles 
Worthington, Sam'l 



222 



APPENDIX. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G 



This company was organized in Blountville, Sullivan 
county, Tennessee, in May, 1861, and mustered into the Nine- 
teenth Tennessee Confederate Regiment at Knoxville in June 
following. 



OFFICEES 



A. L. Gammon, 
James P. Rhea, 
Robert Blair, 
James Carlton, 
Wm. H. Smith, 
J. R. Crawford, 
Nathan Thomas, 
Benjamin Keys, 
John H. Rhea, 
Moore Childress, 
James H. Holt, 
John Grant, 



PRIVATES 



Anderson, David D. 
Bennett, Criss. 
Bird well, Alford 
Barnes, William 
Beard, Rufus 
Blair, Frank 
Beard, George 
Bruce, William 
Bates, John 
Bates, B. 
Bowery, William 
Bacon, Samuel 
Bowery, Cain 
Bowery, James 



Captain. 

1st Lieutenant. 

2d 

3d 

1st Sergeant. 

2d 

3d 

4th 

1st Corporal. 

2d 

3d 

4th 



Bowery, John 
Barger, John 
Baxter, George 
Chase, Isaac P. 
Chase, John 
Chase, Walter 
Cox, Samuel 
Carlton, Adam 
Cressel, William 
Cressel, Van 
Cross, James 
Cross, Samuel 
Carroll, William 
Childress, Samuel 



Chase, Jerry 
Chase, Nelson 
Chase, Jackson 
Chase, Harris 
Drake, David A. 
Drake, Geo. W. 
Drake, Elk 
Drake, Isaac 
Duncan, Sam 
Duncan, Lafayette 
Duncan, Matthew 
Duncan, William 
Ei 1 win, John 
Ford, Martin 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 



223 



Fitzgerald, Thos. 
Fields, John 
Ford, James 
Ford, Henry 
Flenor, Jacob 
Gray, Thomas 
Gallaway, Nathan 
Gammon, Hull 
Gunning, Sinclair 
Gallaway, Benj. 
Gammon, J. K. P. 
Hamilton, William 
Hamilton, S. Rhea 
Hamilton, George 
Horn, Simeon 
■Hawk, H. Decatur 
Hawk, William 
Harr, Simon 
Hilton, John 
Hawk, James 



Horn, David 
Hartness, Martin 
Helbert, James 
Jackson, J. T. 
Jackson (col. cook) 
Lacy, James 
Lyons, John 
Morell, John 
Montgomery, Pete 
Morton, William 
Moody, Toll 

Milburn, 

Moore, Morris 
Nichols, Bill (cook) 
Poe, Jesse 

Peoples, 

Potterfield, Wm. 
Roller, David 
Roller, William 
Roller, George 



Russell, 

Rutledge, Wade 
Roe, L. 
Rhea, Wm. R. 
Rhea, Joseph 
Rhea, Robt. J. 
Rhea, John L. 
Ship, John 
Ship, Sterling 
Ship, Hardin 
Shea, Dennis 
Starr, Dennis 
Stanfield, Jesse 
Strickler, Ruben 
Strickler, Abija 
Spurgeon, Joseph 
Tipton, John A. 
Wolford, Wm. G. 
Wagler, Jackson 



ERRATA 



Page 24, line 3d from bottom, should read, R. P. Short* 

Page 34, line 13th from top, should read moved out from Murfreesboro. 

Page 49, line 1st from top, should read Jno. M. Hull, Co. I. 

Page 61, line 3d from top, should read of the Old Nineteenth, Thos. Wright. 

Page 69, line 2nd from top, should read after the bands had finished. 

Page 73, line 12th from top, should read all through the cedars. 

Page 75, line (under wounded) should read J. T. Huffmaster. 

Page 93, line 25th from top, should read made in their lines. 

Page 94, lice (under killed) should read Swan, Wm. H. Co. E. 

Page 99, line 19th from top, should read Gen. Gregg had been returned. 

Page 126, line (under wounded) should read Strickler, Ruben Co. G. 

Page 131, line (under wounded) should read McCeary, H. Co. B. 

Page 134, line 2d, 3rd, 9th from bottom, should read Maj. Deadrick promoted 

to Lieut-Colonel of the Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment. 
Page 145, line 12th from bottom should read Lum. Waller of Co. E. 
Page 149, line (under killed) should read Hale, Lieut. S. F. Co. H. 
Page 150, line (under wounded) should read Lum. Waller Co. E. 



*The words in italics are the correct words. 



NDEX 



Abernathy, Lieut. S. B 47, 71, 75, 76, 202 

Allen, George 45, 200 

Aiken, S. B 74, 201 

Archer, William A 75, 202 

Alexander, Thomas 75, 144, 150, 202, 206 

Allison, Robert 101, 204 

Arkansas Ram 58, 60 

Battle of Snow-Balls 107 

Battle of Rock Castle 18 

Battle of Fishing Creek 21 

Battle of Shiloh 36 

Battle of Baton Rouge 50 

Battle of Murfreesboro 68 

Battle of Chickamauga 87 

Battle of Mission Ridge 99 

Battle of Resaea 113 

Battle of New Hope 117 

Battle of Pickets' Mills 118 

Battle of Old Kennesaw 120 

Battle of 22nd July 128 

Battle of Jonesboro 131 

Battle of Franklin 141 

Battle of Nashville 151 

Battle of Bentonville 172 

Blair, Lieut. Robert L 9,94,203 

Burson, James D. 198 

Brass Band. 13, 17 

Baker, John 26, 198 

Baker, Lafayette 24, 26, 198 

Breen, Daniel 117, 126, 205 

Burrows, Henry 117, 126, 205 

Bains, John 45, 199 

Bradford, M 45, 199 

Brabson, Lieut, T. M 47, 76, 83, 131, 205 

Boofer, Wm. R 45, 199 

Bradley, Samuel ' 45, 200 

Bradley, Benjamin 126, 205 

Buckner, J. M 45, 200 

Benard, William 116, 204 



226 INDEX. 

Burnett, Frank 75, 101, 201, 204 

Burnett, James 200 

Burkheart, William. 74 

Brataber, John . 75, 94, 202 

Bowers, James. 101, 149, 204 

Bowers, William 116, 149, 204 

Brown, Sergt. Isaac 133 

Brown, Corp. Clabe 74 

Brown, John 120 

Bowles, William. . .. 

Bowles, D. R. 74 

Barger, J. R 74 

Barger, W. H 20 

Barnett, Frank 120 

Barnett, J. W 94 

Basket, John 75 

Bruce, William 45 

Bruden, J. M 101 

Bruner, S. H 

Bates, Robert . 150 

Biddle, A. M 198 

Bagley, William. 

Beard, George 

Brewer, Clark 45, 181 



201 
203 
206 
206 
206 
201 
205 
.47 
202 
202 
198 
205 
203 
202 
201 
204 
150 
206 
207 
207 
203 
200 
207 
204 
205 
Baily, William 198 

Cummings, Col, D, H 8, 11, 12, 17, 20, 21, 23, 32, 199 

Carlton, Lieut. James 9, 24, 199 

Conley, Lieut. Joseph 8, 24, 182, 198 

Colville, Lieut. R. W 75, 83, 131, 202, 205 

Colville, Capt. Elmon E 9 

Carney, Lieut. Thomas 47 

Cressell, Van 75, 202 

Cressell, John 198 

Conwell, Martin 78, 203 

Clemenson, Charley. 23, 24, 198 

Carlton, Lieut. J 9, 24, 198 

Campbell, James 24, 198 

Cheek, E. W 45, 200 

Cheek, George 110 

Crozier, R. C .26, 198 

Carmack, John 45, 75, 94, 200, 202, 204 

Carmack, Isaac 199 

Carmack, Carroll 24, 199 

Cox, William 2(17 

Cox, Samuel 24, 199 

Cunningham, Lieut. Thomas 47, 83 



Buran, Henry 150 

Bailey, John 116 

Bookard, Silas. 129, 131 



INDEX. 227 

Cunningham, S. H 45 

Curran, Conley . . 45 

Curran, 0. S 74 

Chase, Harrison .... 97 

Chase, J. T 45 

Chase, Walter. 

Courtney, M 45 

Craig, A. L 45 

Carroll, Maden 

Cook, John 49 

Cook, William 1)4 

Cross, A. J 49 

Cross, Sam 

Childress, D. M 74 

Carson, Sam 75 

Coughlin, Pete 150 

Cooper. John 94 

Cooper, George A 45 

Cantrell, James 26 

Carnett, Leander. 126 

Chamberlain, George . . 130 

Crawford, William .... 

Crawford. Richard 

Doak, H. Mell .8 

DeLaney, Dr. J. E 8, 26, 47, 59, 130 

Deadrick, Capt, J. G 8, 47, 55, 104, 111, 118, 134, 199, 203. 205 

Deadrick, J. W 198 

Duulap, William, 24 

DePugh. 49 

Duglass, H. I) 

Duncan, William 49 

Duncan, Samuel 45 

Drake, Samuel 49 

Drake, George 150 

DeLonas, William 94 

Dakin, Charles 49 

DeMurr, A. J 12G 

Dyer, D. H 131 

Dodson, B. H 198 



I hut, Thomas 129, 130 

Etter, Lieut. W. W 48, 61, 77, 145, 150, 

Etter, Columbus C 45. 

Easterling, John L 44, 45. 199, 

Erps, Adrin 45,. 74. 199, 

Edgeman, S. G .24, 

Earnest, Edward 75, 

Engledow, Lieut. Oscar 

Ensinger, Thomas 101, 204 



228 INDEX. 

Epperson, John 131, 206 

Ellison, A. J 74, 202 

Fulkerson, Maj. A 8, 11, 41, 45, 19!) 

Fulkerson, Arthur 47, 132, 133, 145, 149, 207 

Fulkerson, George 131 , 206 

Foust, Lieut. Frank 8, 47 

Foust, A. T 201 

Frazier, Capt. S. J. A 9, 47, 75, 76, 85, 94, 203 

Frazier, J. G 47, 71, 76, 201 

Frazier, ("lark 94, 203 

Forner, Isaac 45, 200 

Fields, John 97, 101, 204 

Flenor, Pete 49, 200 

Flenor , Andrew 64, 201 

Foster, D. L 200 

Foster, Samuel 74, 201 

Ford, Martin 75, 202 

Ford, Alford J 75, 202, 203 

Ford, James J 78, 101, 204 

Fudge, Charles J 75, 202 

Ferris, Samuel 130, 206 

Gregg, Lieut. Nathan 8 

Graham, Lieut. J. K 9 

Gaby, Criss 201 

Graham, G. W 26, 198 

Gaston, Lieut. P. C 9 

Gammon, Capt. A. L 9, 48 

Gammon, Lieut. J. K. P 48, 77 

Gammon, Lieut. W. D 77, 175 

Godby, John 45, 199 

Godsey, C. W 131, 206 

Gaby, Samuel 45, 199 

Gaby, Charles 74 

Gaby, John 74, 201 

Gray, Al 45, 199 

Gray, James 49, 200 

Grant, John M 49, 200 

Graves, Washington 200 

Garner, William .110 

Grisham, James 94, 150, 203, 206 

Gentry, Joshua 126, 205 

Grogan, Washington 75, 202 

Gunning, Joe 150 

Goose-Creek trip 14 

Hull, Lieut. Geo, H 9, 26, 198 

Hull, John M 200 



INDEX. 229 

Hannah, Maj". -J. H 9, 47, US, 134, 135, 175, 214 

Hooper, Lieut. Warren .9 

Holmes, Lieut. J. C 9 

Hammer, Lieut. J. C 47, 76 

tt • i I, n i n w f 9, 48, 77, 83, 84, 80, 91, 94, 104, 157 

Heiskell, ( ul. ( . \\ j ' 15g | ^ m ^ ^ ^ ^ m 

Henderson, Pink 23, 155, 207 

Harr, Martin 24, 26, 198 

Harr, Robert 45, 49, 199, 200 

"Hornet's Nest" 39 

Harvey, Capt. W. C 47, 77 

Hodge, Lieut. A. B 47 

Hodge, James 131, 206 

Hawk, Lieut. H. D 48, 77, 94, 200, 203, 206 

Hale, Lieut. S. F 48, 145, 149, 206 

Hale, Elijah 75, 117, 126, 202, 205 

Hale, Lieut. Wra 48 

Hale, G. W '. 150, 206 

Hoyle, Lieut. Ben F 48, 135 

Huffmaster, Lieut. J. H 48, 75, 77, 101 

Huffmaster, Sergt. J. T 202 

Home and Mother 147 

Hampton, William 48, 200 

Hamilton, S. Rhea 74, 202 

Hamilton, J. W 201 

Home, Simon .75, 202 

Hilton, James 75, 202 

Humphreys, O. M 78, 203 

Holly, William 75, 94, 201, 203 

Hawley, Martin C 94, 203 

Hashberger, J. D 98, 203 

Hoard, J.J 109, 204 

Holt, G. W 117,126,205 

Hood, L 126, 205 

Hipsher, William L 150, 206 

Heflin, J. M 203 

Henry, S. R 150, 206 

Havely, Sergt. James H 168 

Holly, Washington B 101, 150, 204, 206 

Hicks, Joseph S 150, 206 

Hutson, Andy 75, 122, 201, 205, 206 

Irwin, William R .175 

Irwin, J. B .62 

Johnson, V. Q 8 

Johnson, B. J. S 45, 155, 199 

Johnson, M. S 101, 204 

Johnson, J.J 133 

Johnson, Andy G 24, 94, 101, 133, 199, 204, 205, 206 

Jones, Lieut. John M 9 



230 INDEX. 

Jones, Lieut. R. P 83 

Jordan, John 26, 198 

Jordan, Nathan 162. 207 

Jordan, George. 198 

Johns, B. J 45, 199, 207 

Jarnagin, Major R. A 47, 71, 72, 74, 77, 201 

Jackson, E. H 75, 202 

Jackson, Lee 109,204 

Jolly, W. F 94,203 

Jenkins, S. M 62 

Kennedy, Capt. D. A 8, 47 

Kennedy, J. H 47 

Kennedy, Thomas 101, 130, 205 

Kinibrough, Capt. J. H 48, 135, 175 

Kuhn, David 1 1 

Kennon, M 45, 199 

Keeling, Frank 45,200 

Keller, George W 74. 201 

Kincaid, Pat 74, 202 

Kincaid, Creed F 75,125,202,205 

Kelly, W. A 94, 150, 203, 206 

Kline, Thomas 130, 205 

King, William 41, 131, 205 

King, David 201 

King, E. R 45, 199, 201 

Knox, W. G 149, 206 

Knox, George 149, 206 

List of Survivors 215 

Lamb, Rufus 8, 47, 97 

Lackey, Capt. W. W 9, 47, 89, 94. 203 

Lackey, Jack 97 
Lowery, Capt. W. H 

Lovejoy, Lieut. W. H 9, 48 

Lovejoy, John 9 

Lyons," Rev. J. A 205 

Lyons, Dan... 45, 101, 199, 204 

Leath, J. T 45, 200 

Lincoln, John 45, 199 

Lively, Capt. J. D. 4s 

Landgrace, E. R. ■■ 49, 201 

Loftis, D. W. . ' ' : '< 202 

Loftis, Richard 201 

Lauderback, Felix. 78, 203 

Looney, Benjamin 89, 94, J 14 

Looney, Marshall 149,207 

Long, John 129, 130, 205 

Miller, Lieut. Pete 9 

Miller, Lieut. John M {) 



INDEX. 2'.'>\ 

Miller, Lieut. William B 48, 75, 77, 168, 202 

Miller, Charles 75, 302 

Miller, T. L .. 117. 126, 205 

Miles, Lieut. M. J 47. 77 

Miles, Lieut. William 47 

Mas ton, Thomas 9 

Moore, Lieut.-Col. B. F 4. 9, 47, 55, 66, 83, 84, 99, 101, 204 

Moore, James 101,204 

Moore, John 45, 204 

Moore, C*. Columbus 97 

Moore, S. D 205 

Moore, John C 201 



Middleton, Sergeant M. . 24 

Massengill, Felix. 



Moneyham, 24 

Milhorn, John. 



Meroney, John N . 150, 199 

Meroney, W. 155 

Montague, J. R. 45 

Melton, A. J. 49 
Melton, J. C. 

Martin, Harris. 98 

Marshall, E. W . 24, 75 

Mitchell, John 75,94,202 

Morgan, Andrew 98 

Morgan, John .149 

Mason, Corporal John 71 

Micheals, J. H 98 

Moody, Tobe 114 

Mee, William 116 

Majors, C. C. 133 



McCarty, W. N 150 

McAndry, J. W . 94 

McDermott, Capt. Paul 48, 129, 130, 135 

McGhee, J. M 74 

McKinney, William 48 

McKissack, J. R. 74 

MeClarin, Jasper 75 

McClain, Thomas 198 

McJenkins, Solomon 126 

McPherson, Frank. .94, 175 

McRussell, Hugh 101 

McRoberts, J 125, 126 

McCreary, H ... 131 

Mayfield, Jack. 150 



199 
45 
199 
200 
206 
207 
200 
200 
201 
203 
202 
203 
203 
206 
129 
203 
204 
204 
206 



232 INDEX. 

Nail, Lieut. R. P 47, 82, 201 

Norton, Rev. R. W 105, 108, 174 

Nance, Peter D '. . .200 

Organization of Regt .8 

Old Hunger 10 

O'Conner, John .45, 199 

Oliver, William 116, 204 

Orick, M 116, 204 

Paxton, Capt. John W .9 

Payne, J. J 78, 203 

Powell, Capt. J. D 8, 10 

Powell, Lieut, Robt. D 9, 14, 181, 198 

Powell, Sam P 9 

Powers, James 24, 45, 198, 199 

Perry, Clabe 23, 163, 164 

Pile, John 45,199,206 

Pyotte, Dr. J. E 47 

Parker, L. D 200 

Pruitt, Nathan 77 

Pugh, Joe 205 

Potts, Edger 149, 207 

Phipps, William F 150, 206 

"Pickett's Mills" 118 

Polk, death of Gen. L 119 

Pactol, Sam P 45, 199 

Potterfleld, William 45, 200 

Parrott, Dau 94 

Rhea, Lieut. James A 9, 45, 48, 200 

Rhea, Lieut. Robt. G 47, 78, 82, 203 

Rhea, Lieut. Win .75, 202 

Rhea, Lieut. John H 77, 94, 203 

Rhea, William R 75, 114, 202, 204 

Rhea, John L 24 

Rhea, Robert J .130, 206 

Roster of Co. C 218 

Roster of Co. E 220 

Roster of Co. G 222 

Roller, David 24, 26, 75, 198 

Roller, William 109, 202, 204 

Roller, James 125 

Roller, George, (Co. G) 150, 206 

Roller, George, (Co. C) 74, 201 

Rock Castle 16 

Rowe, Louis .45, 199 

Roberts, Isaac 45, 199 

Roberts, Jackson .45, 199 

Roberts, Samuel 45, 49, 199, 200 



INDEX. 233 

Reorganization .4(3 

Russell, William R . 75, 202, 203 

Russell, John .149, 206 

lu'iifro, James 94, 203 

Raney, J. R 98, 203 

Rush, William 109, 204 

Hose, C. F 109, 204 

Richards, Sergt. John 110, 129, 130, 206 

Richards, N 133, 206 

Ramsey, John 131 , 205 

Rocky-Face .111 

Rudd, A. M 202 

Riley, S. W 62 

Snllins, Rev. David 8, 13, 58, 105 

Snapp, Capt. Jno. K 9 

St. John, Charles 9 

Sims, Lieut. J, M ... .9, 44, 45, 47, 61, 72, 75, 94, 118, 134, 200, 201, 202, 203 

Spears, Lieut. Sam .9 

Spears, John 123, 125, 205 

Spears, C. C .77 

Smith, Capt. A. Winn 47, 77, 78, 101, 155, 203, 204, 207 

Smith, Zack 145,167 

Smith, Lieut. A. C . 76, 83, 96 

Smith, Joseph 24, 198 

Smith, Thomas 74,202 

Smith, John . .75, 201 

Smith, Ransom .98, 203 

Short, R. P 24, 198 

Shaver, J. A 45, 199 

Sharp, Lieut. J. F 47, 130, 205 

Sharp, F. E 98, 203 

Salts, John * 48, 200 

Staples, Henry • 58 

Staples, Rufus 58 

Swan, J. H 75, 202 

Swan, S. G .126, 205 

Swan, Wm. H 94, 203 

Slone, J. H 75, 202 

Skelton, H. H 74, 202 

Stover, Jake 94, 204 

Stanesberry, Y. A .74, 202 

Strange, James <•». 202 

"Strange Scene" -.96. L32 

Sampson, S. S -.109, 204 

Sherman, John 116. 204 

"Stocks in Camp" 106 

"Snow Balling" 107 

Sugar Creek -161 

"Sun-Shine" • ■ -168 



234 INDEX. 

Seamore, John 201 

Sexton, S. H 201 

Shaw, Charles 201 

Shipley, Benj 150, 207 

Sullivan, Dan 150, 207 

Strickler, Rube 126 

Spe ck, Lawrence P 45 , 200 

Stowe, Richard. 98, 203 

Stevenson, Jim. 158 

Taylor, A. D 8, 47 

"Through the Wilderness" . . f 29 

Tipton, Lieut. R. J 47, 76, 83,203 

Tipton, J. A 74, 202 

Thompson, Sergt. Joe. 72 

Tatham, Lieut. J. F 82 

Traynor, Mike 94, 203 

Tresby, John 94, 203 

"Ten killed at once" 108, 109 

Talley, C. F 109, 204 

The 19th Tenn. in Maney's Brigade 119 

Thomas, C. W 126, 205 

Travis, Beujamin 201 

Terry, Charles 201 

Templeton, John 129, 130, 205 

Tyner, James 8, 47, 58 

Vestal, Billie 24, 31, 105, 117, 126, 131, 182, 198, 205 

Vernon, Abner 24, 26, 198 

Vance, Samuel 45, 199 

Walker Col F M I 8 ' U ' 12 < 23 < 41 ' 47 ' 52 ' 62 < 64 < 66 ' 67 

vvaiKei, i,oi. i . ivi j ? ^ g^ ^ -^ 12g ^ 2Q ^ <, og 

Walker Capt. T. H . . . 9, 45, 200 

Walker, Lode 58 

Worsham, W. J 8, 23, 47, 97, 111, 129, 131, 132, 136, 164 

Willett, Capt. Neb. T 8, 45, 199 

Wallace, Lieut. -las. A ■ 9, 45, 199 

Wilds, Lieut. D. A 9 

Welch, Leander 24, 199 

Woodall, Josiah 24, 199 

Webb, Lieut. Ben 45, 48, 199, 200 

Webb, James. 24, 26, 198 

Wolfinberger, K. S. 45, 200 

White, John (Co. E) 26, 123, 125, 205 

White, John (Co. C) 45, 199 

White, Emmet 61, 201 

Ward, William 45,199 

Waller, Capt. Jake L 47, 76, 82, 163, 164, 174 

Waller, Lieut. H. A 47, 76 



INDEX. 235 

Waller, Sergt. Lum (Co. E) 145, 150, 206 

Wooding, Lieut. J. E 48, 58 

Wood, Talbert 109, 204 

Waggoner, George 130, 20G 

Williams, P. A 74, 202 

Williams, Newton 105 

Williams, C. F 200 

Wax, William 75, 202 

Wideman, J. P 98, 203 

Wright, Calvin 109, 204 

Wright, J. M 114, 204 

Wright, Thomas 45, 61, 92, 94, 199, 201, 203 

Watts, William 126, 205 

Watts, Sam 198, 207 

Webster, E 45, 207 

Webster, John. 15, 149, 181 

Wiggins, James 150, 200 

Whaley, D. C 150, 206 

Wyman, William 206 

Wilkins, Lieut. Dock 45, 200 

Wayler, Jackson 74, 200 

Wilhorn, John .45 

Williford, Jake 62, 97 

York, Lieut. U.S. 9 

York, Charles 45, 200 

Yorkley, Mike 130, 205 

Zollicoffer, Gen. F. K 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 20